IUGG Annual Report 1996
Inter Association Commissions and Committees
General Assemblies of the Union
Other Scientific Meetings
ACTIVITIES IN 1996
International Association of Geodesy (IAG)
International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI)
International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI)
International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA)
International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS)
International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)
International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO)
BRIEF REPORT ON USE OF 1996 ICSU GRANT AND UNESCO SUBVENTION
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLANS
ANNEX 1: A REPORT ON CDC/IDNDR WORKSHOP ON "SEISMIC AND OTHER GEOPHYSICAL
ANNEX 2: Support for INTERMAGNET
The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG),
an international non governmental organisation established in 1919, is
one of the scientific Unions grouped within the International Council of
Scientific Unions (ICSU).
IUGG is dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth
and the applications of the knowledge gained by such studies to the needs
of society, such as mineral resources, reduction of the effects of natural
hazards and environmental preservation.
The Union is a purely scientific organisation. Its objectives
are the promotion and co-ordination of physical, chemical and mathematical
studies of the Earth and its environment in space. These studies include
the shape of the Earth, its gravitational and magnetic fields, the dynamics
of the Earth as a whole and of its component parts, the Earth's internal
structure, composition and tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism
and rock formation, the hydrological cycle including snow and ice, all
aspects of the oceans, the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial
relations, and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.
Union activities embrace studies of the Earth by artificial satellites
and other techniques for deploying instruments at high altitude.
The IUGG has initiated and vigorously supported collaborative
efforts that have led to highly productive world-wide interdisciplinary
research programmes, such as the International Geophysical Year (1957-58),
the Upper Mantle Project (1964-70), the Geodynamics Project (1972-79),
the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (1970-80) and the International
Lithosphere Programme (1981- ). These programmes have set a model for international
interdisciplinary co-operation. One major contribution has been the creation,
through ICSU, of the World Data Centre system, from which the data gathered
during these major programmes are available to research workers everywhere.
The IUGG co-operates with UNESCO in the study of natural
catastrophes. It is also represented on the ICSU Committee for Science
and Technology in Developing Countries, and gives particular emphasis to
the scientific needs of the Third World (e.g. Geodesy in Africa, International
Water Resources, etc...).
The Union also co-sponsors the Federation of Astronomical
and Geophysical Data Analysis Services (FAGS) and is a partner with other
Unions of ICSU in Inter-Union Commissions (e.g. ICL).
The official languages of the Union are French and English.
By their very nature, geodetic and geophysical studies
require a high degree of international co-operation as well as effective
central co-ordination. The Union is fortunate in having 76 Member Countries.
The great majority of those countries participate in the Union through
IUGG Committees set up by the national academy or another body that adheres
to ICSU (other methods of adherence do occur). The Member Countries are
distributed throughout the world as follow :
||North & Central America:
The number of member countries may change from one General
Assembly to the next due to accepted new applications, also because some
countries get unfortunately expelled for being unable to pay their dues
during several years.
Besides, several countries, being in serious arrears of
payment, are in observer status.
The Union comprises seven semi-autonomous Associations,
each responsible for a specific range of topics or themes within the overall
scope of the Union's activities and each with a sub-structure; these seven
International Associations and their sub-components are shown below:
- International Association of Geodesy (IAG/AIG)
- Advanced Space Technology
- Determination of the Gravity Field
- General Theory and Methodology
- International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior
- Controlled Source Seismology
- Earthquake Hazard and Prediction
- International Heat Flow
- IASPEI/IAVCEI Commission on Physical and Chemical Properties
of Materials of the Earthís Interior
- Geodynamics and Tectonophysics
- International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
- Wave Propagation
- European Seismological
- Federation of Digital Broadband Seismograph Networks (with
- Committee for Developing Countries
- International Commission on Earth Sciences in Africa
- Committee on Education
- Asian Seismological Commission
- International Ocean Network
- IASPEI/IAVCEI Committee on Volcano Seismology
- International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's
- Explosive Volcanism
- Mitigation of Volcanic Disasters
- World Organisation of Volcano Observatories
- Geochemistry of Volcanic gases
- Volcanogenic Sediments
- Large-Volume Basaltic Provinces
- Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere
- Remote Sensing
- Volcanic Lakes
- IAVCEI-IASPEI Inter-Association Commission on Physical and
Chemical Properties of Materials of the Earthís Interior
- IAVCEI-IASPEI Inter-Association Commission on Volcano Seismology
- International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA/AIGA)
- Internal Magnetic Fields
- Aeronomic Phenomena
- Magnetospheric Phenomena
- Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field
- Geomagnetic Observatories, Surveys and Analyses.
- Developing Countries
- International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS/AIMSA)
- Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP)
- Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE)
- Climate (ICCL)
- Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP)
- Dynamic Meteorology (ICDM)
- Meteorology of the Middle Atmosphere (ICMA)
- Planetary Atmospheres and Their Evolution (ICPAE)
- Polar Meteorology (ICPM)
- Ozone (IOC)
- Radiation (IRC)
- International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS/AIHS)
- Surface Water (ICSW)
- Groundwater (ICGW)
- Continental Erosion (ICCE)
- Snow and Ice (ICSI)
- Water Quality (ICWQ)
- Water Resource Systems (ICWRS)
- Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (ICRSDT)
- Committee on Atmosphere-Soil-Vegetation Relations (ICASVR)
- Committee on Tracers (ICT)
- International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO/AISPO)
- Sea Ice
- Mean Sea-Level & Tides
- Cooperation with Developing Countries
- Natural Marine Hazards
- Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level
- IAPSO Standard Seawater Service
The Associations are free to convene their own general assemblies
and to sponsor particular symposia, often in partnership with one another,
and, like the Union, are managed by a Bureau and Executive Committee whose
members are elected during their General Assemblies. Within its own discipline
each Association is responsible for determining its own programme of investigations
and for supporting the activities of its own component parts.
Owing to the interactive nature of the subject fields
managed by the Union's Associations, a number of Inter-Association Commissions
have been established which serve the Union and the international geophysical
community by promoting the study of particular interdisciplinary problems:
- Committee for Developing Countries (within each Association,
also at Union level)
- Commission for Natural Disasters (participation to IDNDR)
- Fluid Earth Sciences Committee (not a standing committee
- Committee on Mathematical Geophysics (CMG)
- Study of the Earth's Deep Interior (SEDI)
- Tsunami Commission (Joint IASPEI - IAVCEI - IAPSO Commission)
Besides, and within the International Lithosphere Program
(ILP) of ICSU, IUGG and the International Union of Geological Sciences
operate the Inter-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICL).
General Assemblies have been held since 1922 and, since
1963, at 4 years intervals. The General Assemblies took place at the following
The seven Associations of IUGG meet at these General Assemblies
and organise separate or inter-Association symposia, and the Union itself
organises symposia of high general interest.
Each IUGG Committee, which functions as a non-governmental
entity in its relations with IUGG, is represented at the periodic General
assemblies of the Union by delegates appointed by its adhering body. During
these assemblies, policies governing the Union are agreed on, research
programmes requiring international participation are formulated and co-ordinated
and plans are drawn for their execution. The scientific results of programmes
in progress are discussed at the numerous symposia, Commission and Working
Group meetings and other gathering of scientists that are held during these
Each Association is free to organise its own general assembly
in between general assemblies of the Union. These are very important venues
where progress in all topics the Association deals with is reported. Associations
may sometimes joint in organising a common assembly.
The numerous symposia and workshops organised on other
occasions by the Associations, together with the general assemblies, provide
the opportunity for geodesists and geophysicists from the majority of the
countries of the world to discuss their respective methodologies, results
and hypotheses and to plan collaborative research projects.
The symposia are intended to be particularly helpful to
the younger scientists from the developing countries of the world. The
IUGG tries to help some of them financially to increase their participation
in such events.
The Union and the Associations publish information bulletins
of meetings of the Associations and of symposia sponsored by the Associations.
The following bulletins are issued by the Union and the
Associations which also publish more specialised bulletins from time to
time (e.g. data compilations, etc ...);
||Comptes Rendus of the General Assemblies
Home-page and news on WWW, at: www.obs-mip.fr/uggi
The Union Chronicle, published by Prof. P. Melchior (Belgium),
honorary Secretary General, up to the end of 1995, has been stopped.
||Journal of Geodesy as of Jan. 1996
Travaux de l'Association Internationale de Géodésie
||IASPEI Newsletter (irregularly)
||Bulletin Volcanologique (semi-annually)
||Hydrological Sciences Journal (quarterly)
Newsletters (quarterly), Proceedings of Symposia
Series on Snow and Ice
||IAGA News (irregularly)
||IAMAP News Bulletin (irregularly)
||Procès Verbaux (2-4 years)
Publications Scientifiques (irregularly)
Responsibility for directing the Union's affairs is vested
in the IUGG Council by the Statutes and Bylaws. The IUGG Council consists
of the Council Delegates, who are designated for each Council meeting by
their adhering body as the representative of the geodesists and geophysicists
of their respective country. A Bureau, an Executive Committee and a Finance
Committee administer the IUGG between Council meetings. The Executive Committee
has the particular responsibility of overseeing the scientific programmes
of the Union.
The Bureau of the Union is composed of:
The Executive Committee consists of the Bureau, the past
President of the Union (H. Moritz, Austria) and the Presidents of the seven
Associations, that is:
An Advisory Board on Scientific Policy is in charge of
looking at the goals of the Union and makes recommendations concerning
its missions and objectives. It has been chaired by the IUGG Vice-President
and is composed of the Presidents of the Associations.
The Finance Committee is composed of:
The preparation of the 22nd. General Assembly (Birmingham,
UK, 1999) started.
The Bureau met in Copenhagen in June 1996, and also had
a joint meeting with the Association Presidents and Secretaries General
on this occasion. Some organizational and scientific aspects of the 1999
General Assembly were discussed, for instance the composition and the role
of the Organizing Committee, the Scientific Program Committee, which chairperson
is Prof. Kathy Whaler, U.K.. Recommendations for Union and joint (inter-Association)
symposia and suggestions for scientific topics were made. Thoughts about
future IUGG activities were debated, in various areas such as : global
geophysical observing systems, IDNDR, megacities, education, developing
The role of the Advisory Board on Scientific Policy was
discussed : its role was considered terminated for the time being (it could
be re-activated any time in the future if a need is perceived).
Activities of the Associations
The following reports have been prepared by the Secretaries
General of the Associations, that is:
||C.C. Tscherning (Denmark)
||E.R. Engdahl (USA)
||R.W. Johnson (Australia)
||J.A. Joselyn (USA)
||R. List (Canada)
||G.J. Young (Canada)
||F.E. Camfield (USA)
Central Bureau activities:
The "Travaux" of IAG, which contain reports of all IAG
sections, services and other groups for the period 1992-96, was published
in the spring. The Geodesists Handbook, 1996, was published as Journal
of Geodesy, Vol. 70, No. 12 in October. It contains information about the
IAG structure, activities and officers, totally 200 pages. Both publications
were edited by Pascal Willis of IGN, France. The handbook is in digital
form available on the IAG WWW Home-page. This enables the current update
of the information, which is an important Central Bureau activity.
The Bureau publishes a monthly newsletter, which is printed
in the Journal of Geodesy. This is with the Journal distributed to all
National Representatives and the members of the IAG Executive Committee.
The newsletter includes a listing of all geodetic publications. (It is
provided by the IAG Bibliographic Service).
The Bureau is through the MANICORAL project (European
Union Telematics Program funded) engaged in activities testing the use
of modern multimedia and communication facilities for scientific cooperation
Symposia and meetings:
- The 1st Int. workshop of the ICSU supported HIBISCUS Project
was held in Munich, Feb. 15-16. The project deals with sea level variations
in the Carribian.
- A meeting of Subcommission SSC 8.1, Studies of the Baltic
Sea, was held in Riga, Latavia, March 28-29. A GPS Sea-level campain was
planned for 1997.
- The 7th General Assembly of the WEGENER project took place
June 3-7 in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal.
- The EUREF Subcommission held a symposium from May 22-25,
1996, in Ankara. The symposium was very successful and the EUREF project
has made considerable progress. This symposium was the first one of the
newly organized Subcommission which consists now of the former EUREF Subcommission
as well as the UELN Subcommission.
- The International Symposium on Gravity, Geoid, and Marine
Geodesy (GraGeoMar96) was held in Tokyo, September 30 - October 5, 1996.
The range of problems discussed at this meeting was rather broad with accent
on practical as well as theoretical problems.
- In October 28-30, 1996 the First Meeting of SSG 4.170 (Integrated
Inverse Gravity Modelling) was successfully organized by Ludwing Ballani,
in Walferdange, Luxembourg.
- The 2nd Int. Conference GALOS (Geodesy and the Law of the
Sea) was succesfully organized at Bali, Indonesia.
- The 1996 IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) workshop
and Directing Board meeting was held in Paris, France, Oct. 9-19.
- The International Summer School of Theoretical Geodesy was
held in Como, May 27 - June 7, 1996. The topic was: "Boundary value problems
and the modelling of the Earth's gravity field in the view of the one centimeter
geoid". It was an important meeting attended not only by young scientists,
but also by a broader community of geodesists, mathematicians, geophysicists
and representatives of other branches of related sciences.
- The XII International Course in Engineering Geodesy was held
Sept. 7-16 in Graz, Austria.
- The Tropical school of Geodesy took place 4-16 Nov. in Bandung,
Indonesia. The main emphasis was on the use of GPS for precise positioning.
- IAG have services associated with FAGS. One of the services
(IERS) is also a service within IAU.
- The International GPS Service for Geodynamics - IGS, has
strengthened its service to both the geodetic, the surveying and the navigation
- The International Geoid Service (IGeS) has difficulties in
becoming operational due to limited funds available from the Italian sponsors.
IGeS has coordinated an international group to evaluate a new Earth gravity
- The IAG Bibliographic Service is now functioning with access
to bibliographic information via Internet.
The Association held or sponsored a large number of meetings.
- Workshop of Eastern and Southern Africa Working Group
Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 7-15 March 1996 - Sponsored by Committee for Developing
Countries (see below).
- Methodology of Seismic Risk and Loss Estimation
Stanford, USA, 23-27 April 1996 - Organized jointly with World Seismic Safety Initiative
(WSSI) of International Association of Earthquake Engineering by Working
Group on Seismic Risk and Loss Estimation.
- North London Workshop
North London, UK, May 1996
- Organized by Commission on Controlled Source Seismology.
- Fourth International Workshop on Heat Flow and the Structure
of the Lithosphere
Trest, Czech Republic, 10-16 June 1996 - Organized
by International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC). Support provided for participation
of scientists from developing countries and former eastern European bloc
- International meeting on Geodynamics of the Lithosphere
and Earth's Mantle
Czech Republic, 8-13 July 1996 - Organized by Commission
on Geodynamics and Tectonophysics.
- IASPEI Regional Assembly in Asia
1-3 August 1996 - The Regional Assembly was sponsored by IASPEI, the IASPEI
Asian Seismological Commission, the State Seismological Bureau (SSB) of
China, and the Municipal Government of Tangshan city, China, and was organized
by the SSB. The assembly was attended by a total of 278 delegates, 92 of
these from outside China, representing 29 countries and regions. The assembly
scientific program consisted of 9 Technical Sessions (Earthquake Precursors,
Earthquake Prediction, and Physics of Earthquake Sources ; Strong Ground
Motion and Earthquake Hazard ; Wave Propagation and Tomographic Imaging
; Geothermics and Volcanology ; Recent Devastating Earthquakes in Asia
and Southern Pacific Region ; Subduction Processes ; Seismic Tectonics
and Space Geodesy ; Societal Impact of Earthquakes ; and Triggered/Induced
Seismicity) and 3 Workshops (Implementation of Global Seismic Hazard Assessment
Program (GSHAP) in Central and Southern Asia ; Gaps in the World-Wide Seismological
Publication Web ; and Earthquake Scenario Seismic Risk and Loss Assessment).
In all 185 oral and 95 poster presentations were made.
Although at its 1995 General Assembly IASPEI had already
granted commission status to the Asian Seismological Commission (ASC),
it remained necessary to complete this process by taking the steps required
to formally establish the ASC. This was accomplished at the first ASC Council
meeting, held on 3 August 1996 during the IASPEI Regional Assembly in Asia,
at which statutes for the commission were adopted, officers elected (President,
H. Gupta ; Vice Presidents, K. Hamada and G. Gibson ; and Secretary-General,
Zhu Chuanzhen), and a time and venue for the next ASC General Assembly
set (NGRI, Hyderabad, India, 1998).
- 30th IGC Symposium D4
Terrestrial Heat Flow, Hot
Spots, Mantle Plumes and Thermal Structure of the Lithosphere, Beijing,
China, 4-14 August - Organized by IHFC. Support provided for travel expenses
of key speakers.
- 25th General Assembly of the European Seismological Commission
Reykjavik, Iceland, 9-14 September 1996 - Support provided for participation
of young scientists.
- 7th International Symposium on Deep Seismic Profiling
Asilomar, USA, 16-20 September 1996 - Organized by Commission on Controlled
Source Seismology. Proceedings to be published in Special Issue of Tectonophysics.
- IDNDR Workshop on Earthquake Risk Management Strategies
in Central Asia
Alma-Ata, Kazakstan, 22-25 October 1996 - Sponsored
by IASPEI Commission for IDNDR (see below).
IASPEI intends to continue to make seismic risk reduction
a top priority during the second half of the Decade. It has called upon
seismological groups in member countries and individual Earth scientists
to participate in the effort to reduce the great danger from earthquakes
in many places around the world. IASPEI through its Commission for IDNDR
has expanded its programs to study the main attributes of earthquakes and
to disseminate globally knowledge on earthquakes to governments, engineers,
planners, and the public.
The Workshop on Earthquake Risk Management Strategies
in Central Asia brought together experts from around the world to confer
with Central Asian experts on seismology, earthquake-resistant design,
and emergency response. For the Central Asian participants (from Kazakstan,
Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Russia, Greece, and Turkey)
it was the first time they had met as representatives of independent countries).
A Committee on Education was formed by IASPEI at its 1995
General Assembly to promote the following activities: (1) Develop teaching
materials for seismic instrumentation, data analysis and results ; and
(2) Provide training courses on seismic instrumentation, data processing
and analysis. Under this program IASPEI can respond to training requests
and requests for development of teaching materials on earthquakes and volcanoes
from college to elementary school levels.
Activities Involving Developing Countries:
The Eastern and Southern Africa Working Group of the IASPEI
Committee for Developing Countries has already held five active workshops
at different centers in Africa at which regional seismological analysis
has been carried out and regional bulletins of events and associated readings
produced. These are the only such comprehensive bulletins in the region,
and form a useful starting point for further analysis such as that at ISC,
and also for hazards studies as part of programs such as GSHAP. The countries
involved are Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
and Zimbabwe, with South Africa also participating. At a 1996 workshop
records for the period March-August 1995 were analyzed, and a bulletin
produced. The working group held a formal meeting during the workshop and,
as well as discussing technical problems, adopted a set of statutes which
state its main aim as to 'encourage co-operation and promote research among
seismological agencies in the Eastern and Southern African region'. A 'Report
on the Seismic Hazard Analysis in Eastern and Southern Africa' was also
IASPEI, and its Committee for
Developing Countries, is deeply aware that in many countries of the developing
world there is a lack of even basic texts and publications on seismology
and related Earth sciences. IASPEI therefore has set up a mechanism to
help transfer books and publications from individuals and institutions
that have surplus stocks to institutions in developing areas that have
need of them. To prevent duplication, the IASPEI Secretariat is prepared
to act as a clearing house for such offers and requests. Those with surplus
publications, including back runs of journals, are invited to supply a
list to the IASPEI Secretariat. Institutions in developing countries with
specific needs are also invited to make these known to the IASPEI Secretariat.
- IASPEI Newsletter
The IASPEI Secretary-General prepares
and distributes irregularly an Association Newsletter. The content is primarily
personal reports by IASPEI Commission Chairs, meeting organizers, and other
member scientists involved in IASPEI sponsored activities. The last issue
in 1996 was the first to be distributed using the IASPEI bulk E-mail system
to those who have Internet addresses. Hard copy versions of the Newsletter
will continue to be distributed to those without Internet addresses with
the assistance of the National Geophysical Research Institute in Hyderabad,
- Committee on Developing Countries Newsletter
IASPEI Committee for Developing Countries circulates bi-annually from Hyderabad
a Newsletter intended to provide a forum for exchanging news and views
of geophysical importance among geoscientists, particularly from developing
- IDNDR Newsletter
The IASPEI/IDNDR Secretariat in
Beijing, China, circulates irregularly a Newsletter concerning IASPEI/IDNDR
activities. The Secretariat also publishes a news magazine in Chinese.
- Cermak, V. and Rybach, L. (Editors). Special Issue. Geothermal
Aspects of Lower Crustal Structure, Heat Flow and Hydrothermal Circulation,
Proceedings of the IASPEI Symposium held during the 27th General Assembly
in Wellington, New Zealand, Tectonophysics, v. 257, 1996.
- Reyners, M. and Hasegawa, A. (Editors). Special Issue. Subduction
Zones and Back Arc Basins, Proceedings of the IASPEI Symposium held
during the 27th General Assembly in Wellington, New Zealand, Physics of
the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 93, 1996.
- Schenck, V. (Editor). Earthquake Hazard and Risk,
Papers selected by the Sub-Commission on Earthquake Hazard and Risk from
Symposia and Workshops held during the 27th General Assembly in Wellington,
New Zealand, Kluwer series 'Advances in Natural and Technological Hazard
Research' No. 6, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-Boston-London, 287
- Engdahl, E.R., Castano, J.C., Berrocal, J., (Editors). Special
Issue. Selected papers from the 1994 Regional Seismological Assembly in
South America held in Brasilia, Brazil, Geofisica Internacional, v. 35,
- Young, J.B., Presgrave, B.W., Aichele, H., Wiens, D.A., and
Flinn, E.A., Special Issue. The Flinn-Engdahl Regionalisation Scheme
: The 1995 Revision, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 96,
- Anderson, O.L., Jackson, I. (Editors), Special Issue,
Thermoelastic Properties of Deep Mantle Phases, Proceedings of the
IASPEI Workshop held during the 28th General Assembly in Boulder, USA,
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, v. 98, 1996.
- IASPEI also continues development of a home page on the WorldWideWeb
(www.csd.net/~bergman/iaspei/) which contains organizational information,
a publications list, meeting announcements, and Internet connections.
- Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP)
The common affiliation of seismic hazard is within the scientific community
represented by IASPEI. Several IASPEI commissions and working groups have
an active role in the GSHAP implementation. In particular, in 1996 the
Committee for Developing Countries and the Commission for IDNDR have been
in close contact with GSHAP and the European and Asian Seismological Commissions
have supported GSHAP activities and hosted special sessions within their
general assemblies. An association lecture and a workshop dedicated to
the GSHAP implementation, as well as a GSHAP Steering Committee meeting,
are planned at the 1997 IASPEI General Assembly.
- A System for Technology Exchange for Natural Disasters
IASPEI participates in STEND, an information exchange program
aimed at increasing awareness of available technology which is being developed
by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland.
Contributors supply 'components', each describing some piece of technology,
which are listed in a "STEND Reference Manual" that will be available in
a computer-readable form as well as in a printed version at regional and
- IASPEI Seismological Software Library (SSL)
4 and 5 of the IASPEI Software Library are now available. Volume 4 is a
toolbox for managing bibliographic information and includes programs to
automate the reference preparation in manuscripts and to manage a user's
own references. Volume 5 is A Programmable Interactive Toolbox for Seismological
Analysis (PITSA) and includes a short course on "First Principles of Digital
Signal Processing for Seismologists." Each software volume includes the
executable code, examples on floppy diskettes, and printed documentation.
- IASPEI PC Shareware Library
Under the auspices of
the Working Group on Personal Computers, a PC shareware library is being
published on diskette, including files with short-form manuals of the programs.
The Library provides for fast and wide distribution of geophysical programs
and utilities, reduced or demonstration versions of geophysical software,
and beta-versions of new programs to be included in future volumes of the
New Areas of Interest:
IASPEI/IAVCEI Commission on Physical and Chemical Properties
of Materials of the Earth's Interior
This Commission was established
following the 1995 IUGG General Assembly (Co-Leaders - S. Mackwell and
W. McDonough). The stated goal of this Inter-Association Commission is
to promote interdisciplinary research and discussion on the nature and
dynamics of the Earth's interior by encouragement and facilitation. Through
experimental and theoretical studies of the physical and chemical behavior
of Earth materials we can further our understanding of the planet's complex
and dynamical evolution since accretion. Such studies provide constraints
on the structure and composition of the planet's interior and characterize
the important physiochemical exchanges between the metallic core, the silicate
earth, and the atmosphere/hydrosphere. New understandings of earth processes
and evolution will only come about through a strong interdisciplinary approach
to the characterization of the nature and dynamics of the minerals, melts
and magmas that are the fabric of the interior of the Earth. Moreover,
by promoting interdisciplinary research and discussion, we hope to bring
forth a greater appreciation of the measurements and uncertainties in the
measurements made by geophysicists and geochemists studying the Earth's
interior, and thereby facilitating a more informed application of these
constraints in models developed in geophysics, geochemistry, petrology
and volcanology. A major goal of the Commission is the coordination of
international symposia and workshops that will promote the discussion of
such interdisciplinary studies of Earth's interior. The Commission will
be organizing a Continental Roots Workshop in 1997.
IASPEI/IAVCEI Commission on Volcano Seismology
This Commission was established following the 1995 IUGG General Assembly
(Co-Leaders - B. Chouet and Y. Ida) to provide stronger links between IASPEI
and IAVCEI in the field of seismic monitoring. Advances in this area are
critical to an understanding of the deep interior of volcanoes (their 'plumbing
systems') and how potentially threatening magmas move towards the surface
and erupt. Volcano seismology is the major tool used in monitoring volcanoes
throughout the world, and advances in the subject therefore are likely
to be of considerable humanitarian value, particularly in developing countries
where most of the Earthís active volcanoes are to be found. The
Commission will be organizing joint symposia on volcano seismology at the
IASPEI and IAVCEI General Assemblies to be held in 1997.
1996 was another eventful year for IAVCEI. The energy
levels of volcanologists, petrologists, and geochemists world-wide remained
high, and much of this was channelled into IAVCEI activities through the
twelve IAVCEI Commissions, as well as (1) through groups planning IAVCEI
workshops, General Assemblies, and other meetings, (2) through Sub-Committees
of the IAVCEI Executive Committee, and (3) by individuals raising important
issues that needed to be addressed by the Association. Much of the year
was spent by colleagues in Mexico planning the January 1997 IAVCEI General
Assembly in Puerto Vallarta, and by the IAVCEI Bureau in implementing personal
membership following the vote by National Delegates on new Statutes and
By-Laws for IAVCEI at the 1995 IUGG General Assembly in Boulder.
1997 IAVCEI General Assembly:
Planning for the 1997 IAVCEI General Assembly in Puerto
Vallarta progressed well during the course of the year and an exciting
scientific program was assembled by the Organising Committee, partly assisted
by the leaders of several IAVCEI Commissions. In addition, an excellent
selection of pre- and post-Assembly field excursions was arranged to areas
of volcanic interest throughout Mexico and in Nicaragua, as well as specialist
Arrangements were made also for an IAVCEI Information
and Discussion Forum to be held in Puerto Vallarta. These are open meetings
that have been held during previous IAVCEI General Assemblies in Canberra
(1993) and Boulder (1995) and the International Volcanological Congress
in Ankara (1994). They permit any participant of the conference to provide
comment on, and ask questions about the management and future directions
of IAVCEI. These meetings have been well attended and they offer an excellent
opportunity for the IAVCEI Executive Committee to receive direct feedback
from people interested in the future of the Association. A good attendance
was anticipated at the 1997 General Assembly given the fact that nearly
600 people are now fully paid up members (`affiliates') of IAVCEI.
Personal membership of IAVCEI was implemented during the
course of the year. A membership form was distributed widely through National
Correspondents, Commission Leaders and newsletters, members of the Executive
Committee, in Bulletin of Volcanology, on the IAVCEI homepage, and
by means of a postal mailing list. A professional agency in Canberra was
contracted to receive membership applications and fees. A graded scale
of membership fees was established using an ëhonestyí system
whereby prospective members were asked to identify a fee that corresponded
to their annual level of income - from US$32.00 where the income exceeded
US$10,000, down to $US8.00 if the income was less than US$7000.
The system seemed to work well in that people from wealthy
countries paid the full amount whereas students generally and people from
economically under-privileged countries in particular, were able to join
the Association for a low amount. US$8.00 is a substantial amount of money
in some countries and indeed some people have said it is too much. However,
this amount is in effect being subsidised by those paying the full amount
and we feel that offering an even lower amount would be quite impractical
Transferring money to Canberra from underprivileged countries
is also a problem, but people in these countries were urged to send in
single-payment blocks of applications and to use the credit-card facility
of a colleague in more wealthy countries as a means of payment. Very few
people seem to have abused the honesty system, although there is of course
no way of checking this fully.
The total membership by 25 December 1996 was 542 (355
people paid the maximum fee, and 146 the minimum). Ten countries with the
greatest numbers of members were, in decreasing order, the USA, Italy,
Japan, Australia, United Kingdom, Russia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Germany,
and France. We plan to seek further memberships during 1997 but to manage
the membership from a newly established IAVCEI Secretariat in Canberra,
rather than use a professional agency which takes a percentage of each
IAVCEI News is a membership newsletter that previously
was produced three times each year in the IAVCEI international journal
Bulletin of Volcanology which is published by Springer-Verlag (Germany). A decision
was taken during the year to publish IAVCEI News as a separate item
for delivery by mail to each paid-up member of IAVCEI. An arrangement was
made for Springer to publish and mail out (at cost) the newsletter. Dr
Hazel Rymer (Open University, United Kingdom) was appointed the IAVCEI
News Editor, and she edited the inaugural issue (a combination of issues
1 and 2) which was published and distributed before Christmas. Alternative
ways of publishing IAVCEI News more economically are being pursued
- for example, desk-topping by the IAVCEI Secretariat itself.
The IAVCEI Homepage (http://geont1.lanl.gov/HEIKEN/ONE/IAVCEI_HOME_PAGE.HTM)
was established during the year by the IAVCEI President, Grant Heiken,
assisted by Vice-President Andy Duncan. It has proved to be most successful
as a contact point for information and news items about the Association.
It is being accessed increasingly.
Bulletin of Volcanology - the International Journal
A smooth transition took place in the change of Executive
Editorship of the Bulletin of Volcanology. Dr D.W. Swanson (United
States Geological Survey, now based at the Hawaii Volcano observatory)
is the Editor-in-Chief, assisted by his colleague Dr C.G. Newhall (also
USGS, but based at the University of Washington, Seattle). The report of
a review of the Bulletin of Volcanology undertaken in 1993-4 by
a Sub-Committee appointed by the IAVCEI Executive contained recommendations
that have helped the Executive Editor establish a management system that
he feels best suits the needs of the Editorial Board and prospective authors.
Dr Swanson visited the publisher's headquarters (Springer) in Heidelberg,
and the IAVCEI Secretary General visited the Berlin office of Springer
in June to discuss progress with the management of the
Bulletin of Volcanology,
plans for IAVCEI News, and to discuss future collaboration between
IAVCEI and Springer.
New IAVCEI Video:
A highlight of the year was the completion of the video
Reducing volcanic risk which was funded in part by a grant from ICSU. This video
is the second of a series dealing with volcanic eruptions and their impacts
on society. The first video was entitled Understanding volcanic hazards
and it presented graphic images of volcanic hazard types. The second video
complements the first one by focusing on the ways in which communities
can lessen risk through mapping volcanic hazards, monitoring volcanoes,
and having emergency plans established and practiced by the community.
Both videos were completed as a result of the dedication and commitment
of several people, but most notably Steve Brantley of the United States
Geological Survey. IAVCEI is selling the videos either singly or together
at a reduced price.
Relationships with IASPEI:
A special effort was made during the year in continuing
to establish stronger linkages with IAVCEI's sister Association, IASPEI.
This was achieved mainly through further development of two IAVCEI - IASPEI
Inter-Association Commissions: Physical and Chemical Properties of
Materials of the Earth's Interior, and Volcano Seismology.
Attempts were made to organise a Joint Assembly of the
two Associations, including the idea of a joint meeting in Indonesia where
earthquake and volcanic activity are at high levels and where they threaten
populous communities. IAVCEI plans to hold a General Assembly in Indonesia
in the year 2000 (see below), but at the present time 2000 is an inconvenient
year for IASPEI.
A successful collaboration between the two Associations
is more likely to be found in a joint venture in Chile where IAVCEI and
the IASPEI Commission for the IDNDR are making arrangements to hold an
international workshop on the use of modern technologies in reducing the
risk from earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis and in providing rapid information
immediately following disasters caused by these hazards. The workshop is
expected to be held in April 1998 (see below).
Another area of mutual interest to both Associations is
in the vulnerability of megacities to the impact of volcanic eruptions
and earthquakes. This is a topic of considerable interest to volcanologists
concerned with the impact of eruptions on large urban conurbations, such
as in the Naples region of Italy. The topic will attract significant interest
from IAVCEI during the 1999 IUGG General Assembly where megacity vulnerability
is expected to be a prominent topic of discussion.
Linkages with ILP:
Efforts were made also in 1996 to establish linkages between
IAVCEI and the International Lithosphere Program (ILP). Both organisations
have a strong interest in the physics and chemistry of the lithosphere
yet, for historical reasons, have never adopted until now collaborative
approaches towards the subject. Discussions are under way, particularly
in regard to the co-sponsoring of future conferences and symposia, most
notably the 1998 IAVCEI General Assembly to be held in South Africa where
the chemical evolution of the lithosphere is expected to be a major theme,
as well as the 1999 IUGG General Assembly in the United Kingdom.
A current member of the IAVCEI Executive Committee is
Dr Marta Mantovani, Brazil, who also is the Chair of National Committees
for the ILP. She and South African colleagues have already started a dialogue
concerning shared interests in the program of the 1998 IAVCEI meeting.
New IAVCEI Commissions:
Indications of the robustness of IAVCEI during 1996 are
seen in the emergence of proposals to establish four new commissions. These
are: (1) Education and Public Awareness (including the collection
of video and photographic material), (2) Arc Volcanism, (3) Ocean
Island Volcanism, and (4) Electromagnetism of Volcanoes (possibly
a Joint Commission with IAGA). Discussions are continuing about the best
way in which these Commissions might be established. However, there is
some concern that too many separate Commissions may be an indication of
the need to ensure greater collaboration between existing interest groups,
rather than establishing a plethora of separate ones, in order that the
benefits of interdisciplinary activity be maximised. The correct balance
is seen to be critical to the success of intra-Association activities within
IAVCEI currently has four Sub-Committees, all but one
of which are temporary groups of people who consider and report on particular
issues that the Executive Committee feels need addressing by the Association.
The one exception is the Awards Sub-Committee which every four years
considers nominations for two IAVCEI awards: the Thorarinsson Medal and
the Wager Medal (formerly the Wager Prize). A call for nominations was
made during 1996 so that winners could be identified for presentation of
the awards at the 1997 IAVCEI General Assembly in Mexico.
The three other Sub-Committees that worked during the
course of the year are as follows:
1. Crisis Protocols: Guidelines or protocols
are being developed that will cover the behaviour of scientists during
volcanic crises. These crises are times when local scientists are under
considerable pressure to monitor volcanoes and to report findings to local
authorities, but their task can be made more difficult when well-intentioned
visiting scientists feel the need to visit the crisis ostensibly to ëassistí
2 Volcano Alert and Public Warning Systems: This group was established towards the end of 1996 and its aims are to
examine the best ways of generating alert and warning systems (colour-coding
and number systems, for example) for volcanic eruptions.
3. Directory of Crisis Expertise: The concept
of establishing this Sub-Committee was discussed during the year, with
a view to producing a directory of people and their respective skills and
experience in volcano-crisis management, so that individuals can be drawn
on by volcanological groups who require assistance as times of crisis.
A Sub-Committee on Safety for Volcanologists in
1993-5 produced a set of guidelines for use by people planning to work
on active volcanoes. The guidelines were published in English in IAVCEI
News and as a poster that has been distributed worldwide, particularly
to people in volcanological observatories. This poster was redesigned during
1996 and produced in Spanish for release in early 1997. Spanish is the
most common first language spoken by people who live on or near the world's
IAVCEI currently is planning General Assemblies, conferences,
and workshops, most of which are referred to above, but which are all listed
in the following for convenience.
- 24-28 February 1997: International Workshop on Volcanic
hazards and emergency management in the Southwest Pacific being held
in Port Vila, Vanuatu, in association with the South Pacific Applied Geoscience
- July 1998: IAVCEI General Assembly in South Africa, having
the theme Magmatic diversity: volcanoes and their roots
- April 1998: Joint IASPEI/IAVCEI IDNDR Conference in Chile
on Modern prediction and response systems for earthquake, tsunami and
- 1999: IUGG General Assembly in Birmingham, United Kingdom
- 2000: IAVCEI General Assembly in Indonesia
IAVCEI is the ësmallestí of the Associations
in IUGG which, in turn, is one of the largest of the unions comprising
the International Council of Scientific Unions, ICSU. We are greatly encouraged
by the energy and enthusiasm of the individual members who now make up
our Association. We believe that in 1996 we have taken a step away from
the traditional hierarchical structure of ICSU-style scientific associations.
We have empowered individuals through the introduction of personal membership
of IAVCEI and, in so doing, are guaranteeing a robust future for the Association.
The first full year of the quadrennium has been an active
one. In 1996, IAGA cosponsored eight meetings, published 2 books, convened
the first meeting of 1995-1999 Executive Committee (of the Association),
participated in a meeting of the IUGG Association Presidents and Secretaries-General,
published Issue No. 35 of IAGA News, and planned for the 1997 IAGA Assembly
in Uppsala, Sweden. An ICSU grant through IUGG to support the INTERMAGNET
project supported their efforts to modernize and standardize global observations
of Earthís magnetic field. Congratulations were extended to Prof.
Jack Jacobs on the occasion of his 80th birthday, and we mourned the death
of IAGA members including Honorary Member Baron Marcel Nicolet.
IAGA Co-Sponsored Symposia and Workshops:
Regional and topical scientific workshops are important
to the work of the Association. Each of the eight meetings and workshops
cosponsored by IAGA are listed below:
Co-sponsored and financially assisted by IAGA:
Fourth Latin American Conference on Space Geophysics
(COLAGE) ; April 22-26, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina
Co-sponsored and financially assisted by IAGA and IUGG:
Electromagnetic Induction Workshop, a biennial activity
of Working Group I.2 of IAGA (Electromagnetic Induction in the Earth) ;
July 11-19, Hokkaido, Japan
Co-sponsored by IAGA with travel support from the IUGG
Developing Countries fund:
Symposium on Magnetism in Studies of Dynamics of Earthís
Interior and Electrodynamics of its Far Environment; November 18-20, Colaba,
Co-sponsored by IAGA:
- International Solar-Terrestrial Predictions Workshop; January
23-27, Hitachi, Japan.
- Workshop on Atmospheric Interactions: Downward and Upward
Coupling to the Middle and Upper Atmosphere; February 5-16, Trieste, Italy.
- Workshop for Latin American Magnetic Observatories; July
1-12, Univ. Nac. Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F.
- VIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments,
Data Acquisition and Processing; September 8-15; Niemegk, Germany.
- First General Assembly of Stratospheric Processes And their
Role in Climate (SPARC); December 2-6, Melbourne, Australia.
Two IAGA Guides were printed in 1996: the IAGA Guide
on Magnetic Measurements and Observatory Practice, by J. Jankowski and
C. Sucksdorff, and the IAGA Guide for Magnetic Repeat Station Surveys,
by L.R. Newitt, C.E. Barton, and J. Bitterly (the latter Guide is not yet
in circulation). These guides join a manual, Observing Noctilucent Clouds
by M. Gadsden and P. Parviainen, which was published in 1995. These manuals
were printed with the assistance of a 1995 ICSU grant. To date, 127 copies
of the Guide on Magnetic Measurements and Observatory Practice have been
distributed free of charge to active magnetic observatories world-wide; another 30 have been ordered and sold.
IAGA Bulletin No. 32s - Geomagnetic Data for 1988, and
IAGA Bulletin No. 32t - Geomagnetic Data for 1989, were published by ICSU
with the financial assistance of UNESCO through the mediation of the Federation
of Astronomical and Geophysical data analysis Services. The Bulletins are
produced by the International Service of Geomagnetic Indices (ISGI) Publications
Office which is hosted at the Centre d'étude des Environnements
Terrestre et Planétaire (CETP, Saint-Maur, France), under the responsibility
of Annick Berthelier and Michel Menvielle.
IAGA Executive Committee Meeting:
The first meeting of the 1995-1999 IAGA Executive Committee
was held July 22 and 24 in Brisbane, Australia. Discussions were lively
and wide-ranging and included the specific matters listed below.
- The nomination of Dr. Michael Gadsden as an IAGA Honorary
Member was unanimously approved.
- A procedure was established for approval and support of IAGA
sponsorship of regional and topical scientific workshops and meetings.
The amount budgeted to support these meetings was increased.
- A procedure was established for awarding travel assistance
grants to participants in the 1997 Uppsala Scientific Assembly ; the registration
fee guidelines were approved.
- It was agreed that IAGA Symposia will not be scheduled in
conflict with IUGG Lectures at the July 1999 General Assembly in Birmingham,
- It was decided that a voluntary contribution to IAGA of $20
to $40 will be solicited in IAGA News. Persons who contribute will be recognized
as benefactors of the Association unless they request anonymity.
- A proposed revision in Statutes was discussed that would
change EC membership to include Division Leaders. It was resolved that
there is not strong support for a change in the Statutes ; however, there
can be increased communication. The EC will henceforth meet with Division
Leaders at all Assemblies.
- IAGA News will continue to be printed and mailed. If possible,
it will be put on the Internet too. More generally, the IAGA WWW page received
firm endorsement and further development of content and presentation was
- The EC deliberated at some length about IAGAís future.
We must seek ways to earn support, both from governments and from other
sources such as the private sector.
- Should IAGA expand its scientific agenda to include "biosphere
issues". This issue will be added to the Agenda for the joint EC/DL meeting
The Eighth Scientific Assembly in Uppsala, Sweden, in
August (4-15) will be the highlight of 1997. The Assembly is being held
jointly with the 9th Solar Terrestrial Physics (STP) Symposium of the Scientific
Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) and International Commission
on the Middle Atmosphere (ICMA) of the International Association of Meteorology
and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). We are expecting at least 1 000 participants.
Much of the communication about the Assembly, including registration and
submission of abstracts, is via the INTERNET. The Assembly home page on
the World Wide Web is www.irfu.se/iaga_97.php.
A special address at the Assembly will be the "Commemorative
Lecture on the Contribution of Hannes Alfvén to Geophysics". This
lecture will be given by Professor C.-G. Fälthammar, who was for many
years a close collaborator of Professor Alfvén and succeeded his
chair at the Royal Institute of Technology. Professor Alfvén's contributions
are fundamental to the development of plasma physics, cosmical physics,
and many subdisciplines of geophysics. Thus it is quite fitting for IAGA
to honor Professor Alfvén on the occasion of our General Assembly
held in Sweden.
Major Commission Activities:
Four Commissions of IAMAS had organized international
Conferences, as documented by the appropriate printed (impressive) Proceedings.
At these occasions they also had their administrative meetings, electing
new officers and establishing membership to commissions.
These Commissions are:
II. Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE): Both President
and Secretary were reelected for another 4year term. They are: Prof.
E.P. (Phil) Krider, President ICAE, and Dr. E. (Earle) R. Williams, Secretary
IV. Clouds and Precipitation: Dr. George A. Isaac,
has been elected President ICCP, succeeding Prof. Peter R. Jonas. This
Commissions has had, for quite a while, no secretary. Instead they elected
a Vice President, Prof. Gabor Vali.
IX. Ozone (IOC): Prof. Robert D. Hudson, was elected
as the new President of IOC, following Prof. G.M. Megie. The Secretary,
Prof. Dr. Rumen D. Bojkov, was reelected Secretary IOC.
X. Radiation (IRC): Prof. William Smith is the
new President of IRC, stepping up from Secretary in the last period, and
replacing R.J.E. Harries, the former President IRC.
President R.A. Duce is a member of the SCOR Executive
Committee, and on behalf of IAMAS he attended the annual meeting of SCOR
in Southampton, England from 16-17 September 1997.
Dr. Eugene Bierly of the American Geophysical Union has
been representing IAMAS during discussions of the IAG/CSTG Working Group
on the IUGG Fundamental Reference and Calibration Network (FRCN). Dr. Bierly
attended a meeting of the working group at the AGU meeting in Baltimore,
MD, USA in May, 1997.
Travel support of scientists in need:
In 1996 IAMAS has, through its support of Commission meetings
and SPARC, funneled $14 500 in support of travel grants to scientists from
developing and hardship countries. This represents 50% of its 1996 annual
The main initiative taken by IAMAS is the proposal to
the informal IUGG Executive Meeting in Copenhagen in June to form an ALLIANCE
between the national Meteorological and Hydrological Services, NMHSs, (as
represented by the World Meteorological Organization, WMO), the Universities
of the world teaching Meteorology and related fields (as represented (not
formal yet) by UCAR, the US University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)
and the scientists at large (as represented by IAMAS). This proposal has
been supported in particular by IAHS, IAPSO and IAGA. The proposal had
already been discussed with major players in WMO and, in the meantime,
has been fleshed out in discussions with the key partners.
The aims of the ALLIANCE are to enhance collaboration
in scientific, operational and organizational aspects between the different
segments, to provide easy and fast cross links between and among different
segments of the ALLIANCE, making full use of the Internet and its capabilities.
The provision of information is Step I. It is established by making known
and available already existing Web sites and organizing them in a user-friendly
fashion. One of the applications addresses the interchange of available
educational and training modules. Another segment would make scientific
and applications software accessible on a down-loading basis. In Step II
questionnaires are to establish the needs of the Services and Universities
so that Internet units can be setup to address the high priority questions
and provide teams to provide advice and assistance (Step III). The status
of the ALLIANCE can be reviewed on http:iamas.org/alliance. The ALLIANCE
will be particularly successful if the communities involved will be able
to provide their own Web pages, which can then be linked. It is hoped,
that the "system" is fully operational by the time most Universities in
the developing world are also on the net. It is planned to have a IUGG
proposal for collaboration submitted to the Executive Council of WMO in
June 1997. By that time an official agreement by UCAR should also be available,
in addition to some financial resources (which may be forthcoming).
An internal upgrading of communications has been achieved
by linking IAMAS to its members by a home page: http://iamas.org. This
page contains information about membership of the EC of IAMAS and its Commissions,
Statutes, forthcoming Conferences and meetings, Reports by the President
and SG on special meetings and events, etc. The home page involves ongoing
updating and is never finished. The plan however, is that many of the information
providers, such as the Commissions, produce their own Web pages (which
gives them full control), Web pages which can then be linked to the IAMAS
One of the weak points in the IAMAS secretariat is the
nearly complete lack of information on the National Representatives to
IAMAS. Improvement will get top priority after the Melbourne IAMAS/IAPSO
Joint Assembly in July 1997. Operation of IAMAS would not be possible without
the use of e-mail. Unfortunately, often e-mail addresses are not activated
or fax machines are not switched on.
Hydrological Sciences Journal:
The 1996 volume of Hydrological Sciences Journal comprised
a total of 988 pages in six volumes. The series included the very successful
Special Issue on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission, August 1996.
Edited by Albert Rango and Jerry Ritchie of the International Committee
on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission, the issue contains twelve papers
by experts covering a range of applications of remote sensing technologies
to hydrology. Special Issue, HSJ, Vol. 41, No. 4, (August 1996).
Red Books in 1996:
Application of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology
and Water Resources Management:
Edited by K. Kovar
& H. P. Nachtnabel. IAHS Publication No. 235 (published April 1996)
in the IAHS Series of Proceedings and Reports ISBN 0-947571-84-1 ; 712+xii
pp. ; price £58.00.
In April 1993 the highly successful first HydroGIS conference
(IAHS Publ. No. 211) was held in Vienna. This new publication is the proceedings
of the second HydroGIS conference which was held three years later in Vienna.
The main goal of HydroGIS'96 was to track the progress in the methodology
of GIS and in sophisticated applications in water-related areas from 1993
to 1996. The 83 papers included in this volume document the experiences
and especially the progress in GIS applications in the hydrologic sciences.
The papers are divided between the following topics:
- GIS Functions and Hydrological Modelling;
- Methodological Aspects;
- Coupling GIS with Hydrologic Models;
- Digital Terrain Models in GIS;
- Application of GIS in Water and Environmental Management;
- Application of GIS in Surface Water Systems;
- Application of GIS in Groundwater Systems;
- Remote Sensing and GIS;
- GIS in Relation to Decision Support and Expert Systems.
The conference was a contribution to UNESCO's IHP-V programme
(1996-2001): Hydrology and water resources development in a vulnerable
Erosion and Sediment Yield : Global and Regional Perspectives: Edited by D.E. Walling & B.W. Webb IAHS Publication No. 236 (published
July 1996) in the IAHS Series of Proceedings and Reports. ISBN 0-947571-89-2
; 586 + xiv pp. ; price £ 55.00.
The 61 papers published in this proceedings volume were
presented at the "International Symposium on Erosion and Sediment Yield: Global and Regional Perspectives", held at Exeter, UK, in July 1996.
The Symposium drew together information currently available on global and
regional patterns of erosion and sediment yield and their sensitivity to
environmental change, to examine the trends and patterns involved and to
identify key areas for future research and international collaboration.
The papers were grouped together into six main themes.
The papers on Global patterns and Regional and national patterns are primarily
concerned with sediment yields and provide a valuable synthesis of existing
information both at the global scale and from specific areas of the world.
They are complemented by a group of papers dealing more specifically with
Soil erosion perspectives which emphasize the significance of soil erosion
in many parts of the globe. Any attempt to explain global and regional
patterns of erosion and sediment yield must clearly take account of contrasts
in the erosional and sediment conveyance systems operating in different
morphoclimatic zones, and a further group of papers therefore focuses on
Sediment dynamics in contrasting environments. Attention is also given
to the sensitivity of erosion and sediment yields to environmental change
in a section devoted to Trends in sediment yield. The wider environmental
and economic significance of increased sediment loads in rivers and associated
management issues are emphasized by the final group of papers dealing with
Sedimentation problems and sediment management.
The Symposium was a contribution to Projects 2.1 and 2.2
of UNESCO's International Hydrological Programme (IHP-V) which focus on
vegetation, land use and erosion processes and on sedimentation processes
in reservoirs and deltas.
Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Edited by Karl Kovar & Paul van der Heijde. IAHS Publication
No. 237 (published September 1996) in the IAHS Series of Proceedings and
Reports. ISBN 0-947571-94-9 ; 606+x pp. ; price £ 55.00.
In recent years, significant research has been conducted
resulting in a variety of approaches that can be used to incorporate information
about errors relating to model formulation into the modelling process and
to establish the level of uncertainty in model-based decision-making. Increasingly,
these new techniques are being applied to a variety of problems and sites.
As at the previous conference in the series, ModelCARE
90, (held in The Netherlands, 1990), the major objectives of the ModelCARE96
Conference (held in September 1996 at Golden, Colorado, USA) were to provide
an international forum for state-of-the-art presentations on relevant methodologies
and techniques, and to identify the needs for future developments. In addition,
the conference was intended to illustrate the practicality of various techniques
through advanced case studies on calibration and reliability assessment.
This new proceedings volume contains 59 papers spread
over the six topics into which the conference was organized.
(The proceedings of ModelCARE 90 were published as IAHS
Publ. No. 195 in the same series as this new proceedings volume. The price
is £ 35.50 and the publication is available from IAHS press)
L'hydrologie tropicale: géoscience et outil
pour le développement (Tropical Hydrology : A Geoscience and
a Tool for Sustainability). Mélanges à la mémoire
de Jean Rodier (Dedicated to the memory of Jean Rodier). Edited by P. Chevallier
& B. Pouyaud. IAHS Publication No. 238 (published December 1996) in
the IAHS Series of Proceedings and Reports. ISBN 0-947571-99-X ; 436 +
xii pp. ; price £ 48.50.
Jean Rodier devoted his professional life to tropical
regions and developing countries. One year after his death the 11th "Journées
Hydrologiques de l'Orstom" provided an opportunity to pay him homage -
an international conference dedicated to his memory was organized and held
in Paris from 3 to 4 May 1995. The title of this conference was "L'hydrologie
tropicale : géoscience et outil pour le développement (Tropical
hydrology : a geoscience and a tool for sustainability)" reflecting perfectly
the framework and the objectives of Jean Rodier's work. The 30 principal
papers presented at this conference are brought together in this publication.
At a time when water is a major challenge in the relationships
between societies, this book demonstrates the interest of scientific specialists
concerned with the tropical world. It is concerned with the improvements
of knowledge, methods and techniques, and how these can be applied in the
developing countries of the tropics.
While recalling Jean Rodier's approach and teachings,
this book also considers the state of the art and the prospects for the
future. The titles and abstracts of all the papers are provided in both
French and English and the papers are arranged in five sections:
- Remembering tropical hydrology;
- Rainfall and climate in tropical milieu;
- Tropical hydrological regimes;
- Tropical hydrological processes;
- Data processing and hydrological modelling in the tropics.
Calendar of meetings organized/sponsored by IAHS in 1996:
- International Conference on Ecohydrology of High Mountain
Areas and Regional Workshop on Hydrology of Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region; Kathmandu, Nepal 23-28 March 96;
- HYDROGIS '96 : International Conference on Application of
Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management; Vienna, Austria 16-19 April 96;
- International Conference on the Impact of Nuclear Power Plants
and Other Radiation-hazardous Objects on the Hydrological Cycle and Water
Resources; Obninsk, Russia 23-27 May 96;
- Destructive Water: Natural Disasters Due to Water: their
Abatement and Control; Anaheim, California, USA 24-28 June 96;
- Interceltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Water Management; Rennes, Brittany 8-11 July 96;
- International Symposium on Erosion and Sediment Yield: Global
and Regional Perspectives; Exeter, UK 15-19 July 96;
- International Conference on Reservoir Sedimentation; Fort
Collins, Colorado, USA 9-13 Sept. 96;
- Third Kovacs Colloquium on "Risk, reliability, uncertainty
and robustness of water resources systems"; Unesco, Paris 19-21 Sept.
- MODELCARE'96: International Conference on Calibration and
Reliability in Groundwater Modelling; Golden, Colorado, USA 25-27 Sept.
- 3rd Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) Workshop; Berne, Switzerland
7-11 Oct. 96;
- International Conference on Water Resources and Environment
Research: towards the 21st Century; Kyoto, Japan 29-31 Oct. 96;
- International Symposium on Hydrology in the Humid Tropic
Region; Kingston, Jamaica 17-22 Nov. 96.
The recipient of the 1996 International Hydrology Prize,
awarded jointly with UNESCO and the WMO, was Professor Desmond Midgley
of South Africa. The citation for Professor Midgley, appearing in the January
1997 issue of the IAHS Newsletter ends, appropriately with the following: "Professor Midgley has been an exemplary exponent of applying basic hydrological
principles to address real-world issues in a water-scarce environment such
as that of southern Africa. He has a gift for reconciling the requirements
of a site-specific hydrological study with regional hydrological patterns
and trends. His vision that the immense spatial variability of rainfall-runoff
conditions in the catchments of the southern African subcontinent can and
must be overcome, has inspired the many post-graduate students, researchers
and young water engineers who has benefited from his mentorship during
the past four decades."
IAHS produces a Newsletter three times a year which is
widely distributed among more than 2 000 individual members and maintains
During this time period, the IAPSO Secretary General established
a Web page at www.olympus.net/IAPSO/
which will be a valuable resource to the international oceanographic community.
This Web page provides information on IAPSO and its activities and also
provides direct links to IUGG, ICSU, various other scientific organizations
of interest to oceanographers, universities, institutes, laboratories,
government agencies, data sources, and other Web pages of interest. In
addition to the Web page, direct responses were provided to various inquiries
received by letters, e-mail, and fax.
Activities continued to formulate the IAPSO Program for
the upcoming IAMAS/IAPSO Joint Assembly to be held in July 1997 in Melbourne,
Australia. The Joint Assembly has a Web page at www.dar.csiro.au/pub/events/assemblies/info.htm
The IAPSO Commission on Sea Ice has organized a symposium
and a separate workshop at this Assembly, and the Commission on Natural
Marine Hazards and the jointly sponsored Tsunami Commission have also organized
symposia. The final program was advertised and abstracts of proposed papers
An initial solicitation for proposals was issued for IAPSO
symposia to be held at the upcoming 1999 IUGG General Assembly to be held
in Birmingham, England, UK. Formulation of a proposed program is now in
The IAPSO President continues to serve as IAPSO's representative
to ICSU's Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR). In that capacity
he attended SCOR's meeting in Southampton, England, UK.
The IAPSO Commission on Natural Marine Hazards co-sponsored
and was a primary organizer of three scientific meetings. These were:
Hazards '96 held in Toronto, Canada, in July 1996 as a continuation of
a series of international meetings on hazards; Coastal Zone Canada '96
held in Rimouski, Quebec, in August 1996; and Natural and Technological
Coastal Hazards held in Tirupati, India, in December 1996. The meeting
in India was part of an initiative to hold scientific meetings in countries
in need, recognizing that scientists in those countries often have difficulty
in obtaining travel funds to attend meetings outside their immediate geographic
The IAPSO Commission on Mean Sea Level and Tides, and
IAPSO's Permanent Service on Mean Sea Level, provided scientific support
and co-sponsorship of a meeting, Tidal Science, at the Royal Society in
London, England, UK, in October 1996. The Permanent Service on Mean Sea
Level continues to provide data and provides the GLOSS Bulletin which is
available on the World Wide Web.
The IAPSO Commission for Cooperation with Developing Countries
completed a draft of an IAPSO publication on Oceanography in Developing
Countries. Present Plans are to publish that in cooperation with a university
in India. The publication incorporates papers presented at the IUGG General
Assembly in 1991 and the IAPSO General Assembly in 1995.
The IAPSO Standard Sea Water Service continues to serve
the international oceanographic community.
The Tsunami Commission is now jointly sponsored by IAPSO,
IASPEI, and IAVCEI. The IAVCEI sponsorship was added in 1996. That Commission
will report separately to IUGG.
Seismic and Other GeophysicalInstrumentation
The CDC/IDNDR Workshop on Seismic and Other Geophysical
Instrumentation was held in Hyderabad, India, 9-20 December 1996 - The
workshop was attended by an expert panel and 16 participants from developing
and earthquake-prone countries. The emphasis was mainly on seismic, geodetic
(GPS), magneto-telluric, gravity and magnetic instrumentation. In addition
to theory lectures, arrangements were made for direct handling of the instruments
in real field conditions. Manufacturers of geophysical instruments displayed
and demonstrated their latest products.
The grant (US $ 8,200) was used for bringing scientists
from developing countries to the meeting, also for training and teaching,
and for planning/co-ordination.
A more complete report is given as annex 1.Intermagnet Program
The grant (US $ 7 800) was used, like the ones in previous
years, to support the world-wide network of high quality geomagnetic data
observatory, and specifically on that year for: data publication and documentation; planning/co-ordination and travel expenses to meetings for some members
of the Intermagnet four-member Executive Council and of the ten-member
Operations Committee. As part of the outcome, the Istanbul - Kandilli observatory
is upgrading to meet Intermagnet standards.
A more complete report is given as annex 2.Modelling solute leaching due to fingering in non-structured
The grant (US $7,900) was used to support research leading
to one Doctoral dissertation and one IAHS special publication. The dissertation
was completed and the publication is in press. The presentation of the
results will be made in Rabat (Morocco) at IAHS Scientific Assembly.
Dates and places of the G.A.s of the Associations
- IAG: September 3-9, 1997, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
- IASPEI: August 18-29, 1997, Thessaloniki (Greece)
- IAVCEI: January 19-24, 1997, Puerto-Vallarta (Mexico)
- IAGA: August 4-15, 1997, Uppsala (Sweden)
- IAHS: April 23-May 3, 1997, Rabat (Morocco)
- IAMAS, IAPSO: July 1-9, 1997, Melbourne (Australia)
Date and place of the 22nd Union General Assembly
July 19-30, 1999, Birmingham (United Kingdom)
A REPORT ON CDC/IDNDR WORKSHOP ON "SEISMIC AND OTHER GEOPHYSICAL
The CDC/IDNDR workshop on "Seismic and other Geophysical
Instrumentation" was successfully conducted at the National Geophysical
Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, India during 9-20 December, 1996
as per schedule. The workshop was attended by 16 participants from various
developing and earthquake-prone countries. A list of participants is given
in Annexure 1. The expert panel consisted of Dr. R.D. Adams from ISC, Newbury,
Prof. A. Nikolaev from the Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow and
scientists from NGRI (Annexure 2). The participants arrived Hyderabad mostly
between 7 and 9 December.
There was a short informal inaugural function in the morning
of 9 December. Dr. Adams presided over the function. Dr. H.K. Gupta welcomed
the participants and gave the background of the workshop. The first lecture,
immediately after the inaugural function, was delivered by Dr. Adams on
"Development of International Seismology", which was followed by a series
of lectures by various NGRI experts.
As the name of the workshop indicates, the emphasis was
laid mainly on seismic instrumentation. Global Positioning Systems, Magneto-Tellurics,
Gravity and Magnetic instrumentation were the other subjects covered in
this workshop. In addition to theory lectures, arrangements were made for
direct handling of the instruments by the participants in real field conditions.
A detailed scientific program of the workshop is given in Annexure 3. A
complete volume of the lecture notes is given in Annexure 4.
During the weekend, two excursions were arranged: one,
a dawn to dusk trip to the Nagarjunasagar seismic observatory and dam,
situated about 160 km from Hyderabad, and the other, a tour to various
places of interest in and around the twin cities.
Manufacturers of various geophysical instruments, namely
Teledyne, Micronics, Geosys, Nanometrics, IGS, Reftek and some others,
were invited to display their latest products and demonstrate their working
to the participants. Two full days were allotted for this purpose. The
representatives of these companies also gave lectures on the working principles
and special features of their products.
During the last three days (18-20 Dec.) of the Workshop
participants took part in the annual convention of the Indian Geophysical
Union (IGU) and the Seminar on "Geophysical Instrumentation". Four of the
participants presented five papers in different sessions (please see Annexure
An informal valedictory function was held in the afternoon
of 19 December in which certificates (please see Annexure 6) were distributed
to the participants by Prof. Nikolaev. The participants were invited to
give their feedback. Most of the participants expressed complete satisfaction.
However, some of them felt that hands-on exercises on computers should
have been given more emphasis. The organizers appreciated their views.
The Workshop ended on 20 December along with the conclusion
of the IGU convention.
Support for INTERMAGNET
INTERMAGNET stands for International Real-Time Magnetic
Observatory Network. Under the INTERMAGNET program, high quality geomagnetic
data from a world-wide network of observatories are sent in near-real-time
via satellite and electronic connections between computers to collection
and dissemination centres called Geomagnetic Information Nodes (GINs).
These are currently over sixty observatories from twenty-two nations (including
former East bloc countries and LDCs) participating in INTERMAGNET, with
six GINs operating in North America, Europe, and Asia. The number of participants
is still growing. Data are disseminated to users in a timely manner, via
electronic means, via floppy diskettes, and via CD-ROMS of definitive-quality
data which are published annually. In 1996, the CD-ROM for the 1994 data-year
was published and that for the 1995 data-year was finalized for publication.
A Technical Reference Manual has been published, with the latest version
having been produced during 1996. This manual is distributed widely to
participating institutes of INTERMAGNET and to prospective participants.
The geomagnetic data are fundamental to much geophysical and space science
research, particularly concerning our near-earth environment.
ICSU grants have in the past provided a key to the success
of and the growth of INTERMAGNET. The 1996 grant has been used: for data
publication and documentation; for planning/coordination and travel expenses
to meetings for some members of the INTERMAGNET four-member Executive Council
and of the ten-member Operations Committee. The Council and Committee,
along with resource scientists, serve to: coordinate the effective worldwide
operation of INTERMAGNET; establish quality standards and data transmission
procedures and schedules; organize the efficient exchange of data within
INTERMAGNET and to the world-wide user community; establish policies consistent
with efficient operation and with any national constraints that may exist; seek ways to aid observatories that have funding, staffing, or technical
problems (particularly those in LDCs and former Eastern bloc countries).
The Council and Committee most recently convened meetings in September
1996 at the Niemegk Observatory, in Germany. Young, women, LDC, and former
Eastern bloc scientists play important roles in these INTERMAGNET activities.
Eighty per cent of the costs of these meetings are borne by the participating
nations but without the ICSU and UNESCO funding that is generously made
available, some key members would not be able to contribute their expertise
to the growth of INTERMAGNET, and some observatories in critical areas
of the world would have been closed down.
Richard L. Coles for INTERMAGNET Executive Council
Geological Survey of Canada
1 Observatory Crescent
Ottawa, Canada K1A OY3
Tel: 1 613 837 4561
Fax: 1 613 824 9803