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RESEARCH ON VOLCANOLOGY

 

 

WEI Haiquan 1, HONG Hanjing 1 and LI Ming 2

 

1  Institute of Geology, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing 100029, China

2  Department of Science and Technology, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing 100036, China

 

There has been a great progress in volcanology research in China since 1999. Many Chinese scientists published their contributions in the physical and chemical understanding of volcanology, as well chronology and tectonic settings of the volcanoes. The main progresses concerning volcanology and hazard mitigation are summarized in this report in titles as follows: Study on the active volcanoes of China, Research on physical volcanology and volcanic hazard, Volcanic chronology research, and Geophysical understanding and gas chemistry of volcano.

 

I.  STUDY ON THE ACTIVE VOLCANOES OF CHINA

There are several different active volcanoes in China mainland among the Holocene volcano belts. The Holocene volcanoes are mainly located in Changbaishan (Ever-white Mountains), Jingbohu (Mirror Lake), Wudalianchi (Five connected Ponds), Tengchong County in Yunnan and Yutian County in Xinjiang Region. Wei et al. (2002) published a paper summarizing the main features and hazard problems for the three active volcanoes in China. Liu Jiaqi (1999, 2001), Liu Ruoxin (2000), Huangfu and Jiang (2000) summarized also some of the key features of the active volcanoes, as well as Liu Jiaqi et al. (2002) discussed the volcano-climate interaction from their maar deposits research.

Some of the Holocene volcanoes in China have erupted historically. Xinjiang Daily reported a volcanic blast in Yutian County on May 27, 1951. Wudalianchi volcano has a Mongolian record for the eruption from Laoheishan (Old Black Peak) and Huoshaoshan (Fire Burning Hill) in 1720, 1721 and 1776 respectively (Chen et al. 1999, Wei et al. 2002). Tianchi (Sky Lake) volcano is the most dangerous and active volcano in China. It has eruption records in 1668 and 1903 in a series book of Lichaoshilu (Main events collections in Li Dynasty of Korea) and a volcano survey report from Liu Jianfeng (Wei et al., 2002). Radiocarbon dates show that other volcanoes in China with no historical record have also erupted during Holocene. Jinlongdingzi volcano and Jingbohu volcano, for example, have 14C dates of 1600, 2470, and 3490 BP respectively.

In his book named Volcanoes of China Liu Jiaqi (1999) summarized the space and chronology distribution features of the Cenozoic and Holocene volcanoes in China. He discussed the dynamic mechanism of the volcanoes based mainly on the geochemistry features of the volcanic rocks. From the latest research data on the maar deposits in the lake he discussed the volcano-climate effects.

As the chief editor, Liu Ruoxin (2000) published a book summarizing mostly on the geological features of the Active Volcanoes in China. As well as the commonly mentioned active volcanoes in China, such as the volcanoes in Changbaishan, Yunnan Tengchong, Wudalianchi, Jingbohu, Longgang, and Yutian, they gave a systematic description for the volcanic geology in Hainan Island and Taiwan Island.

The MaanlingLeihuling Holocene volcanoes in Hainan Island represent the latest episodes of the Cenozoic volcanism in a series of Jinniuling episode, Duowenling episode, Dongying episode and Leihuling episode. As one of the City Volcano in China, only 18 km southwest of Haikou City, the local government set up a volcano park based on the newly formed volcano landforms. For a purpose of public education in volcano, the authors in the book introduced also the common knowledge on the general feature of a volcano as well as some beautiful myths and legends of volcanic eruption.

Datun volcano in Taiwan Island is one of the active volcanoes in China. Song Shengrong introduced the main volcanic features of Datun volcano (in Liu Ruoxin eds, 2000, active volcanoes in China). After describing the geologic evolution of Datun volcano, Song Shengrong points out Datun volcano is in its active state based on the seismic, fumarole gases and geothermal studies from his colleagues.

Huangfu and Jiang (2000) edited a book named Study on Tengchong volcanic activity in which they summarized the recent data on Tengchong volcanoes for the last years. Their book is composed of 15 individual chapters with photos and diagrams illustrating the geological and geophysical features and the volcano monitoring works. In the first 5 chapters they described the geography, geology, volcanic strata and geochronology, geochemistry of the volcano while in the chapters 6 and 7 they discussed the tectonic stress field environment and the tectonic dynamic setting of Tengchong volcano. The seismic soundings on the volcanoes and magma chamber system and other monitoring works on the volcanoes, such as geodetic deformation, gas and water chemistry of the hot springs around the volcanoes, are summarized in chapters 8-13. As a result of otheir works, they made a hazard assessment and a volcanic and geothermal resources development analysis for Tengchong volcano in chapters 14 and 15.

From a co-joint Sino-German research on the maar sediments drilling project, Liu Jiaqi et al. (2000a, 2000b, 2002) made some progress in the paleoclimate reconstruction both in China and on Earth. Guo et al. (2001) estimated the volcanic gas emission from Tianchi volcanic eruption about 1000 years based on their petrologic method research. They concluded that the 108 t of HCl, 2108 t of HF, 1.5109 t of H2O, 2.3107 t of SO2 and 3.5107 t of H2SO4 were emitted to the air in the Millenium eruption. From SEM analysis and chronology study of the tuffaceous deposits, Liang et al. (2001) contributed the three ash layers in the ODP 1143 drilling site in the South China sea to the Quaternary eruption from Toba volcano (YTT, OTT, and HDT) respectively. In a similar way, Guo et al. (2002) compared the ash shards in the maar deposits at Huguangyan volcano to the Toba 74000 a BP eruption. This let them conclude that a much wider dispersion area for the Toba eruption and a sedimentation rate for the loose deposits in the crater lake.

In a scientific symposium of volcanism, resource and environment held in Changchun in 1999, many Chinese geologists presented their research works for the last few years. Wang (1999a, 1999b), Wang et al. (1999), Peng and Yin (1999) described the tectonic settings of the active volcanoes in northeast and southwest part of China. Deng and Sun (1999), Chi et al. (1999), Deng et al. (2001), Li et al. (2001), Zhao et al. (2001), and Zhou et al. (2002) discussed the relationship between the volcanism and the uplifting history in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Fan et al. (1999a, 1999b, 1999c) assessed the volcanic hazards of the Holocene volcanoes based on their geochemistry studies.

 

II.  RESEARCH ON PHYSICAL VOLCANOLOGY AND VOLCANIC HAZARD

After describing the general features for the active volcanoes in China, Wei et al. (2002) summarized the physical volcanology and hazard assessment for the three volcanoes in China (Tianchi volcano in Changbaishan, Tengchong volcano in Yunnan and Wudalianchi volcano in Heilongjiang). The polygenic central volcano, Tianchi volcano (also called Baitoushan volcano, White Head Mountain), had a plinian column height of 35 km (Ht) and possess a probability between 1 in 5 to 1 in 10 for the next eruption to happen in the next 100 years (Wei et al., 1999, Wei et al., 2002). This let them conclude that Tianchi volcano is of the highest risk among them and point out that the three main volcanic hazards from Tianchi volcano are from the plinian fallout deposits, ignimbrites and lahaars. A more probable next eruption event from Tianchi volcano would be in intermediate to small magnitude but would be enough to cause serous impact to local area and the river systems around the volcano. The caldera lake, Tianchi, possesses a significant hydrological hazard with its 2 km3 water. Floods triggered by either eruption or landslide into the caldera lake could have devastating effects to the three water channel systems headed from the volcano. As well as the physical volcanology and hazards description for Tianchi volcano, the physical process of eruption and hazard assessment for Wudalianchi volcano and Tengchong volcano are also briefly summarized based on their research (Wei et al. 2002).

Liu et al. (1999) briefly summarized the volcanic hazard problems concerning the 4 volcanic centers in northeast China while Yang et al. (1999) and Zhang (1999) discussed in detail the hazard effects from Tianchi volcano.

There are some research papers on the physical dynamic processes of the volcanic eruption from Tianchi volcano. Wei et al. (2000) summarized their physical simulating results about the ignimbrite-forming eruption at Tianchi volcano. It was estimated that the plinian column height (Hb) varied from 20 km to 10 km during the eruption episodes, with a maximum column height of Hb =25 km. The dense lithics in diameter exceeded 8 cm followed ballistic trajectories while the smaller lithics and pumice entered the convection and umbrella part of the plume. The initial comendite magma has a temperature about 780C and an exit velocity about 300 m/s. With a mass eruption rate of 108 kg/s, more than 1.341019 J energy had been released from the Tianchi Millenium eruption. A maximum convection column width at Tianchi volcano once reached to 26 km that made the envelop circle for the highest risk zone from fallout hazards. Likewise, Zhao et al. (2002) simulated the 2-D numerical dispersal pattern of the Tianchi fallout deposits based on the other parameters adopted from others. He discussed also the wind velocity effect on the tephra dispersal.

There are many Chinese accounts for the volcanic eruptions in China. Wei et al. (2001a, 2001b) recognized some volcanological clues from the myths, legends and historical records. Analysis of the Manchurian and Chinese legends indicates that Tianchi volcano had several significant eruptions and left devastating effects during the last few millennia. The wild azalea myth describes a violent eruption event at Tianchi volcano. One can see the eruption style, episode features and disaster effects on the ancient Sushen People from the beautiful Manchurian myths. The legends also indicate that some of the eruptions from Tianchi volcano are closely related to lahaar and flood events that seriously affected the Manchurian people 460 km north of the volcano.

From a study on the homogeneous process of melt inclusions entrained by the feldspar phynocrystals at Tianchi volcano, Wei et al. (1999) found that there existed two temperature interval for the homogeneous phase change of the inclusions. They contributed the 1125-1150 oC homogeneous temperature interval to a high temperature gas bubble formation in the magma chamber. They took also the 750-825 oC as a highest welding temperature interval in the ignimbrite deposits.

Monogenetic volcanism is a common feature of continental basaltic volcanism. Wei et al. (1999) discussed the volcanological features for the monogenetic volcanoes in Longgang (Dragon Ridge) volcano clusters. They found that the Longgang monogenetic volcanism produced more than 100 scoria cone, tephra sheet, lava flow, maar and so on. Some of the key geometry parameters for the monogenetic volcanoes were discussed in detail. Based on a study on the pyroclastic deposits in Longgang volcano clusters, Liu et al. (2000) described the features of the scoria cones and maar deposits in detail. Bai et al. (1999) made the first volcanological map for Laoheishan and Huoshaoshan volcanoes in Wudalianchi. They recognized 2 episodes and 5 stages during which the Laoheishan cone was formed. Liu et al. (1999) summarized the form and internal texture features of the bombs erupted from Wudalianchi volcano and discussed the dynamics of the bomb formation, ballistic trajectory and colliding deformation of the bombs.

From a volcanic landform chronology study on the planation surface in eastern Hoh Xil, Tibet, Li et al. (2002) deduced that planation surface was formed between 3-6.9 Ma. They collected 45 chronology data for the lava platforms and mesas in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau with elevation between 4900-5200 m asl and recognized the uplift duration of the plateau.

The Emeishan Basalt is the most voluminous continental flood basalt in China. Hou et al. (1999) summarized the characteristics and genesis study on this continental flood basalt while Song et al. (1999) and Wang et al. (1999) discussed the REE distribution and thermal anomaly features of the mantle plume structure generating the Emeishan Basalt. After describing the temporal-spatial distribution, rock association, major and trace elements of the basalts, Zhang et al. (2001) discussed the relationship between the Emeishan basalt and the underneath mantle-plume interaction structure. They pointed also some key problems related to the genesis of the basalt and the plume dynamics, as well as some approaches in solving them. Like wise, Zhao et al. (2001) discussed the dynamics process from the head of a mantle plume to produce a large igneous province (LIPs) based on their classification and description of the different LIPs. For the volcanism controlling agent of the intermittent release of energy in the Earth, Yang et al. (2000) discussed the interrelation between the Galactic Year, gravitational constant G, the solar radiation quantity, the moving speed of the solar system, the exchange of angular momentum at the core/mantle or mantle/crust interface of the Earth. It is this complicated energy release process that leads to eruption of super plume and magma. Chen Dianyou (2000) discussed the non-adiabatic state of the Earth's interior and interpreted the volcanism and climate coupling sequences at the equator and poles of the Earth. Deng et al. (1999) discussed three types of igneous petrotectonic assemblages and their corresponding lithosphere-asthenosphere systems.

In a review of classification of pyroclasts and pyroclastic rocks, Sun et al. (2001) proposed a nomenclature on the classification of pyroclastic rocks both in petrography and petrogenesis items. They stressed also the importance of the pyroclastic rocks in solving the volcanology-sedimentology interrelation and their physical process problems.

 

III.  VOLCANIC CHRONOLOGY RESEARCH

New technique application of volcano chronology has greatly stimulated the development of the volcanic research. A lot of chronology data for the active volcanoes have been got from some newly set up laboratory.

From high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of Tengchong volcanic rocks by using U-Series method, Wang et al. (2000a) measured the 238U, 234U, 232Th, and 230Th concentration and their different radios respectively. Their 238U /230Th isochronal yielded 4 age values, 22720 ka, 79.65.5 ka, 21.93.0 ka, and 7.51.0 ka, for the young volcanic rocks in Tengchong volcano. Wang et al. (2000b) analyzed 11 comendite pumice and trachyte samples from Tianchi volcano by TIMS and gave time sequence of the upper Tianchi cone as follows: >350 ka, 70 ka, 18-25 ka, 10 ka, 4-5 ka, and 0.75-1 ka. Based on their research they stressed that the precision and fitness of the U-series TIMS method is applicable to the young high-K content volcanic rocks. They contribute the excess 238U content and to the fluids effects in the magma source region and a subduction processes of the west Pacific Ocean (Wang et al. 2000c). Lin (2000) presented a 40Ar/39Ar data of 1237 ka and 12310 ka for the trachytes from Tianchi volcano and discussed the climate effect from the eruptions. Cui et al. (2000) found a historical record for volcanic eruption in Korean Peninsula happened in 1199 AD and considered that the eruption took place at Tianchi volcano.

Li et al. (2000) tried measuring a Tertiary volcanic profile by using K-Ar chronology and compared with geomagnetic events. They found, for the very young volcanic rocks, that the most precise K-Ar results were achieved when the samples were in 200-280 m grade and repeatedly measured 4-5 times. This helped them get a conclusion that it is feasible to study Tertiary geomagnetic events through K-Ar dating and terrestrial magnetism. Li et al. (2002) introduced also a precise K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar method to determine the very young volcanic rocks. They found that the key technique to determine the age of young volcanic rocks by K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar method is how to avoid excess argon effects and how to raise the relative component of radiogenic argon. The newly set up laboratory technique and measuring procedure helped them get more than a dozen of time dating on the volcanic rocks as young as tens of thousands years BP.

Wan and Zheng (2000) discussed some of the existing problems in the time dating of young volcanic rocks by the fission track method (FT). They presented a series of FT results for the apatite and zircon minerals from the Tianchi volcanic rocks. For the young volcanic rocks at Tianchi volcano, Ji et al. (1999), Yin and Li (2000) presented also some thermoluminescence ages (TL) for the youngest volcanic rocks of Tianchi volcano. In a paper from Zheng et al (2000), they reviewed the TL method in determining the young age of volcanic rocks.

 

IV.  GEOPHYSICAL UNDERSTANDING AND GAS CHEMISTRY OF VOLCANO

In the last 5 years, there are some geophysical sounding projects of the volcanic texture and magma chamber system at Tianchi, Tengchong, Wudalianchi and Jingbohu volcanoes, from which many insight of the volcanological features have been recognized.

Tang et al. (2001) reported their magnetotelluric survey result about Tianchi volcano as follows: (1) There exist some low velocity envelopes at shallow depth less than 5 km corresponding to the caldera lake and hot springs around Tianchi volcano. (2) A low velocity envelope locates 12 km below the caldera lake and the northeast part of the volcano, which is inferred as a magma chamber system in 20-30 km thick and 15-25 km wide. And (3) There exists obviously a crustal conductivity difference in S-N directional profile of Tianchi volcano. The south part of the volcano has a much higher resistivity than the north part.

Zhang et al (2002a) studied the magma system of Tianchi volcano with three dimensional deep seismic sounding (DSS) technique and pointed out that the Tianchi magma system, mainly characterized by low velocity of P wave, could be described as three parts in terms of depth. They found a large LVZ extending mainly in S-N direction at depths of between 9-15 km and considered this to a major place of magma storage. The LVZ at depth deeper than 15 km narrows down and penetrates to the upper mantle beneath Tianchi volcano. At shallow depth of less than 8-9 km, the LVZ is localized to some isolated area such as the LVZ just north of the crater. From their work Zhang et al. (2002a) recognized also some hot magma system in deeper crust and remnant magma at shallow depth.

Wang et al. (2002b) made a survey on 2-D velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle beneath Tianchi volcano by means of seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection travel-times. Their result shows that there exists a low velocity body in shape of an inverted triangle under Tianchi volcano. The reflecting boundaries, beneath Tianchi volcano, either within crust or at Moho deepen 2-6 km than the surroundings, which makes a root of the crust under the volcano.

Zhang et al. (2002b) presented their crustal and upper mantle velocity structure beneath Tianchi volcano and the surroundings and stated that there existed an interface separating the upper and lower crust in the region. The upper crust is 19-23 km thick with P wave velocity of 6-6.25 km/s while the lower crust is 12-17 km thick with a homogeneous velocity. Under Tianchi volcano they found a low velocity body, about 0.15 km/s lower than its surrounding, that was interpreted as the hot magma system.

Wang et al. (2002a) presented their deep seismic sounding profiles conducted in Tengchong volcano-geothermal area. By means of the finite-difference inversion and the forward travel-time fitting method they found a low velocity abnormal body and two intracrustal faults beneath the volcano-geothermal area. Low P-wave and S-wave velocity, low resistivity, high heat-flow value and low Q value characterize the crust structure under Tengchong volcano. This helps them consider that the low velocity abnormal in upper crust beneath Tengchong volcano is related to a differentiated magma and the magma is derived from the upper mantle.

Lou et al. (2002) discussed the tree-dimensional P wave velocity structure beneath Tengchong volcano by seismic tomographic result. In the upper crust beneath Tengchong volcano they found a P wave low velocity zone (LVZ) and interpret it to a magma chamber or a partially melted material. The shallow LVZ beneath Rehairetian geothermal field was considered to a fracture zone in which the deep hot fluid penetrated upward.

Bai et al. (2001) applied a broadband magnetotelluric sounding technique to determine the deep crustal structure across the Rehai geothermal field in Tengchong Quaternary volcanic center. They found a dome-like structure consisting of a conductive (10 m) core, ca. 2 km wide, and a resistive cap (50-1000m) that is about 5-6 km thick in the central part of the geothermal field. They considered this structure to present a magma chamber beneath the volcanoes.

Zhan et al. (2000) made a magnetotelluric (MT) survey at Wudalianchi volcano clusters. Their MT result shows that there exists a high resistivity envelope in rivet shape that may be interpreted as a cooled magma. The rivet shape magma grows up from upper mantle, via crust, to the surface. This let them consider there is no magma chamber system in the crust beneath the volcano, which is consistent to the monogenetic volcanism features of the volcanoes. Their result shows also a channel-like structure in the upper mantle in S-N direction. This deep channel helps them interpret the geological evidence of regional S-N monogenetic volcanism from Xiaogulihe to Wudalianchi. Zhu et al. (2001) showed also their three layers structure beneath Jingbohu volcano from magnetotelluric result.

Lin Yuanwu (1999a, 1999b) studied the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions and tritium content in the hot spring water from Tianchi volcano and stated that the hot spring water was originated from the meteoric water. They estimated the migration rate of the ground water being 7.5 m/year and stressed that the Cl, F, B, Fe and Mn contents of the hot springs may be used for monitoring of the volcano.

 

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[45]  Wang Fei, Chen Wenji, Zhang Zhonglu, Hu Yutai and Peng Zhicheng (2000b), Activity of Changbaishan Tianchi volcano since late PleistoceneThe constrain from geochronology of high precision U-series time method, Journal of Geoscientific Research in Northeast Asia, 3(1), 32-40

[46]  Wang Fei, Peng Zicheng, Chen Wenji, Wang Zhaorong, Yang Jiwu, Zhang Zhonglu and Hu Yutai, (2000a), High- precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry dating of young volcanic rocks by using U-series method, Chinese Science Bulletin, 45(1), 83-86

[47]  Wang Fuyun, Zhang Xiankang and Yang Zhuoxin (2002b), 2-D Crustal structure of Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region determined by seismic travel time inversion, Acta Seismologica Sinica, 24(2), 144-152 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[48]  Wang Yang (1999a), Geodynamic mechanism of the Cenozoic volcanism in the north and northeast China, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 174-179 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[49]  Wang Yu (1999b), tectonic settings of late Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet and Tengchong area, China, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 905-913 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[50]  Wang Yu, Li Chunfeng and Chen Hongzhou (1999c), Tectonic settings of Cenozoic volcanism in northeast China, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 180-189 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[51]  Wang Yunliang, Hou Zengqian, Xiu Shuzhi and Song Xieyan (1999), The discussion on thermal anomaly of mantle plume in Emei igneous province, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 876-879 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[52]  Wei Haiquan and Liu Ruoxin (2001), Clues of volcanic eruption in China from myths, legends and written records, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 20(3), 337-343 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[53]  Wei Haiquan, Liu Ruoxin, Fan Qicheng, Jin Bolu, Liu Xiang and Zhang Chengliang (1999), Monogenetic volcanism in Longgang volcano clusters, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 325-331 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[54]  Wei Haiquan, Liu Ruoxin, Fan Qicheng, Yang Qingfu and Li Ni (1999), The Tianchi volcano in the Changbai Mountains, Northeast Chinaa polygenetic central volcano, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 257-262 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[55]  Wei Haiquan, Liu Ruoxin, Song Shengrong and Yang Qingfu (2000), Transporting and deposition dynamics in the plinian column of Tianchi volcano, Changbaishan, Journal of Geoscientific Research in Northeast Asia, 3(1), 25-31

[56]  Wei Haiquan, Liu Ruoxin, Zheng Dewen and Fan Qicheng (1999), A study of the homogeneous process of melt inclusions  in Tianchi volcano, Changbai Mountains, Geological Review, 45, Sup.248-256 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[57]  Wei Haiquan, Taniguchi Hiromitsu and Liu Ruoxin (2001), Chinese myths and legends for Tianchi volcano eruptions, Northeast Asia Study, Tahaku University, 191-200

[58]  Wei H., Sparks R.S.J., Liu R., Fan Q., Wang Y., Hong H., Zhang H., Chen H., Jiang C., Dong J., Zheng Y. and Pan Y., (2002), Three active volcanoes in China and their hazards, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences

[59]  Xia Linqi (2001), A study of volcanic rocks in orogenic belts, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 20(3), 225-232 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[60]  Yang Qingfu, Liu Ruoxin, Wei Haiquan, Sang Chengliang and Zhang Xingke (1999), Assessment of potential volcanic hazards of the Tianchi volcano, the Changbai Mountains, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 215-221 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[61]  Yang Xuexiang, Chen Dianyou, Yang Xiaoying and Yang Shuchen (2000), Geopulsation, volcanism and astronomical periods, Journal of Geoscientific Research in Northeast Asia, 3(1), 1-12

[62]  Yin Gongming and Li Shenghua (2000), Characters of quartz thermoluminescence predose and its application to geology, Seismology and Geology, 22, Suppl, 37-41 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[63]  Zhao Hailing, Di Yongjun, Li Kaiming and Li Yonghua, (2001), Large igneous provinces and mantle dynamics, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 20(3), 307-312 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[64]  Zhao Yi, Zhang Chengyuan and Xi Daoying (2002), 2D Numerical simulation of dispersion of tephra fallout, Seismology and Geology, 24(3), 377-386 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[65]  Zhao Z.D., Mo X.X., Zhang S.Q., Guo T.Y., Zhou S., Dong G.C., and Wang Y. (2001), Post-collision magmatism in Wuyu basin, central Tibet: evidence for recycling of subducted Tethyan oceanic crust, Science in China (series D), 44, supplement, 27-34

[66]  Zhan Yan, Zhao Guoze, Bai Denghai, Jin Guangwen, Wang Jijun, Xuan Fei, Jiang Zhao, Tang Ji, Li Guosheng, Hong Fei, Ren Jinzhang, Qu Jiazhi and Guo Deming (2000), Deep electrical structure of the Wudalianchi volcanic cluster in Heilongjiang Province, China, Scientia Geologica Sinica, 9 (1), 51-59

[67]  Zhang Chengke, Zhang Xiangkang, Zhao Jinren, Liu Guofeng, Zhang Jianshi, Yang Zhuoxin, Hai Yan and Sun Guowei (2002b), Study on the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Tianchi volcanic region and its adjacent area of Changbaishan, Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 45(6), 812-820 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[68]  Zhang Chengliang (1999), The geological hazards near the waterfall of Tianchi Lake, Changbai Mountains, Geological Review, 45, Sup. 222-225 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[69]  Zhang Xiankang, Zhang Chengke, Zhao Jinren, Yang Zhuoxin, Li Songlin, Zhang Jianshi, Liu Baofeng, Cheng Shuangxi, Sun Guowei and Pan Suzhen (2002a), Deep seismic sounding investigation into the deep structure of the magma system in Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region, Acta Seismologica Sinica, 24(2), 135-143 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[70]  Zhang Zhaochong, Wang Fusheng, Fan Weiming, Deng Hailin, Xu Yigang, Xu Jifeng and Wang Yuejun (2001), A discussion on some problems concerning the study of the Emeishan basalts, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 20(3), 239-246 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[71]  Zheng Rongzhang, Ji Fengju and Li Jianping (2000), Review on thermoluminescence dating of volcanic rocks, Seismology and Geology, 22, Suppl, 42-50 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[72]  Zhou S, Mo X, Mahoney J J, Zhang S, Guo T, and Zhao Z (2002), Geochronology and Nd and Pb isotope characteristics of gabbro dikes in the Luobusha ophiolite, Tibet. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47(2): 143-146

[73]  Zhu Renxue, Fu Weizhou, Meng Lingshun, Chen Hongzhou and Zhao Yi (2001), Preliminary study on electric structure in the Jingbohu volcano area of the Heilongjiang Province, Seismology and Geology, 23(3), 186-190 (in Chinese with English abstract)


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