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CHAPTER 5  THE PROGRESSES OF WATER

QUALITY RESEARCH IN CHINA

 

ZHOU Huaidong and LI Guibao

Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100044, China

 

5.1  OVERVIEW

The continuously rapid growth of China's economy since the reform and opening up is rarely seen in the history of world economy. However, the process of China's economic development is still basically characterized by extensiveness and a considerable part of the growth has been obtained at the cost of sacrificing ecological environment and great consumption of resources. The continuously rapid economic growth has brought about a huge pressure on China's urban and rural ecological environments and led to even more serious damage to water environment and ecology.

According to the environmental bulletins published by the State Environmental Protection Administration (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, China Environmental Bulletins in 19982001), in recent years, the major rivers of China are generally confronted with organic pollution; the situation of surface-source pollution is becoming increasingly serious; and the proportion of rivers with Grade IV water or under in the major rivers is up to 42.3%49.4% (see Table 1). Dianchi Lake, Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake have seen a rising trend of eutrophication (see Table 2).

 
Table 1.  Water Quality of China's Major Rivers

Year

Grade I-III

Grade IV

Grade V and under

2000

57.7% (main stream)

21.6% (main stream)

20.7% (main stream)

2001

50.6% (main stream)

26.0% (main stream)

23.4% (main stream)

 

Though the sewage treatment rate in China is continuously increasing, the volume of sewage discharged every year is still rising rapidly. The total volume of sewage discharged in whole China in 2001 was 3.31 billion ton more than that in 1998; though the total volume of COD discharged dropped by 895 thousand ton, the volume of COD discharged in domestic sewage rose by 1.04 million ton (see Table 3).

 
Table 2. Water Quality of Dianchi Lake, Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake

Lake

Year

Water quality assessment

 

 

 

Taihu

1999

In 101 water quality monitoring points, the proportion of sections with Grade V water or under was 65.4%.

2000

The permanganate indexes in 80% of the 101 water quality monitoring points reached the requirements of planning.

2001

The contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in 100 water quality monitoring points were seriously excessive of the limits and the lake was in a state of moderate eutrophication.

 

 

 

Dianchi

1999

The water quality in 13 monitoring points was under Grade V; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution was very striking; and eutrophication was serious.

2000

The water quality in 13 monitoring points was under Grade V; Chaohai Lake pollution was striking; and the lake was in a state of high eutrophication.

2001

The water quality in 10 monitoring points was under Grade V; Chaohai Lake pollution was still striking; the lake was in a state of high eutrophication; and the open waters were in a state of moderate eutrophication.

 

 

 

Chaohu

1999

The water quality in seven (63.6%) of the 11 monitoring points was of Grade V or under; and the water body is in a state of eutrophication.

2000

The water quality in 46% of 12 monitoring point was under Grade V; the contents of total nitrogen and total phosphorus exceeded the limits; and the water body was in a state of moderate eutrophication.

2001

The water quality of all of the 12 monitoring points was under Grade V; the pollution of the western half of the lake was more serious than that of the eastern half; the western half was in a state of moderate eutrophication; the eastern half was in a state of moderate nutrition; and water pollution was more serious in comparison with that in the preceding year.

 
Table 3.  The Situation of Sewage and COD Discharge in China

Year

Volume of sewage discharged

( million ton)

Volume of COD discharged

(thousand ton)

Total

Industrial

Domestic

Total

Industrial

Domestic

1998

39530

20050

19480

14960

8010

6950

1999

40110

19730

20380

13889

6917

6972

2000

41510

19420

22090

14450

7050

7405

2001

42840

20070

22770

14065

6075

7990

 

The quality of ground water also allows no optimism. According to the circular from the Ministry of Land and Resources about the situations of ground water in the major cities and area of China in 2000, the statistical analysis of the quality of ground water in 130 cities and areas in all parts of the country shows that the overall quality of ground water is good, but the ground water in most cities has suffered point-sources and non-point sources pollution to a certain extent and the contents of some elements in some places have exceeded the limits. The main pollution elements include total solids, total hardness, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, pH value, iron and manganese.

The ground water pollution elements in the major cities of northeast China mainly include total hardness, total solids, nitrate, nitrite, iron and manganese and then sulfate and chloride. The ground water pollution elements in the major cities and areas of north China mainly include total hardness and total solids and then sulfate, nitrate, chloride and fluoride. The total hardness and total solids of ground water in this region are seriously excessive of the limits. Especially in Cangzhou City and Langfang City of Hebei Province, the total hardness is seriously excessive of the limit and the water quality is very poor. The total numbers of bacteria and bacillus coli colonies are obviously excessive of the limits in Xuchang City of Henan Province. The ground water pollution elements in the major cities of Northwest China mainly include total solids, total hardness, nitrate and sulfate and then chloride, fluoride, nitrite and ammonia nitrogen. In addition, the pollution of chromium (VI) in Xi'an City and Hanzhong City of Shaanxi Province is excessive of the limit. The ground water pollution elements in the major cities of south China mainly include nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, iron, manganese, total hardness and nitrate. In addition, the ground water of some cities is acidic and the pH value is seriously excessive of the limit. The excessive ground water pollution elements in the major cities and areas of central south mainly include nitrite, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese and then total hardness, fluoride and pH value. The pollution of iron and manganese is mainly caused by the primitive environment and this pollution is very common. The ground water pollution elements in the major cities and areas of Southwest China mainly include total hardness, total solids, nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese and then fluoride, sulfate, organic phenol, oxygen consumption and pH value. The pollution elements are mainly distributed in a point type and the limit-exceeding rate is low.

Generally speaking, the characteristics of ground water pollution in China are as follows: In terms of the degree of pollution, the pollution in the northern cities is generally more serious than that in the southern cities; the number of pollution elements is big and the limit-exceeding rate is high; and the pollution in North China is especially serious. In terms of pollution elements, the pollution of “three nitrogen components” is serious in all parts of China. The pollution of total solids and total hardness is mainly distributed in the northeast, north, northwest and southwest regions. The pollution of iron and manganese is mainly distributed in the south. In respect of the trend of change, the quality of ground water in most cities is becoming stable or rising slightly; the ground pollution in some cities and areas is aggregating, to which we should pay more attentions.

5.2  WATER PURIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

Super critical water oxidization (SCWO) is a new oxidization technology that can completely destroy the structure of organic pollutants and has unique advantages in wastewater treatment. However, China's research in this aspect has just broken the ice. Ding Junwei and some other persons from Zhejiang University have used this technology to treat phenol-containing wastewater and studied the influence of temperature, pressure and retention period on the rate of phenol removal in intermittent and continuous reactors under sub-critical and critical conditions. They have found the higher reaction temperature and pressure are and the longer retention period is the higher phenol removal rate will be in the situation that the other conditions are unchanged; and phenol removal rate can reach 96% in a very short retention period. Wang Tao and some other persons have also made preliminary studies on benzenediol-containing water treatment with SCWO method. The result of their studies indicates that SCWO may produce a very good effect for removing the COD of benzenediol; and the rate of the degradation of organic components can reach more than 90% in a very short retention period (Wang Xiaodong, 2001).

Membrane biological reactor (MBR) is a new wastewater treatment technology that has been developed in recent years. China has made some progress in MBR research. Wu Kaifen and some other persons have studied the feasibility of using hollow fiber millipore filter to treat and recycle the plate-washing liquid of banknote-printing factories; Tsinghua University has carried out studies on using inorganic membrane-biological reactor to treat domestic sewage; Tongji University has carried out studies on using hollow fiber MBR to treat domestic sewage; and the Eco-Environment Research Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences has carried out studies on using MBR to purify petrochemical wastewater. Nanjing Chemical University has made the following experiment: Fe(OH)3 is used to fix active sludge on the surface of an internal-pressure tube membrane; under the action of internal pressure, wastewater will permeate through the membrane; in the process of permeation, wastewater will get in touch with the fixed active sludge first, so the organic pollutants in wastewater will be degraded to some extent and the CODCr in wastewater will be greatly degraded by the active sludge; after membrane filtration, the content of CODCr will be only 79 mg/L; and the quality of output water will be greatly increased consequently (He Yi, 2001).

Lu et al. have used ultrafiltration technology to treat the wastewater produced by lathes and cleaning equipment. The treated water is transparent; the oil content is lower than 10 mg/L; the removal rate is above 99%; and the content of COD is reduced by 610 times. Yang et al. have used ultrafiltration MBR to treat domestic sewage. When the retention period of hydraulic force is 5 h and membrane flux is 4.2 L/h, the removal rates of COD, turbidity and SS in domestic water are respectively 99%, 98% and 100% (Wang, 2001).

Luo et al. (2000) have combined magnetic treatment and artificial ecological system together for purifying organic wastewater. The result indicates that instantaneous magnetic treatment can directly remove about 20% of the COD in sewage; afterwards, the ecological effects caused by magnetization can promote the conversion of food chain and obviously improve the effects of purification. Meng et al. (2001) have used water hyacinth and water spinach to purify urban sewage. The result shows that the contents of BOD5, CODCr, TN, TP and Cr in purified sewage are obviously lower than those in the control sample. The purification rates of BOD5, CODCr, TN, TP and Cr are respectively 63%-91%, 36%-71%, 8.7%-77.0%, 51%-87% and 16.75%-33.3%; and water spinach has a better effect than water hyacinth for removing BOD5 and CODCr.

The worsening of water quality in intensive cultivation is one of the problems that have nagged the development of high-intensity cultivation. Ren Ao and some other persons (2001) have used the combination of such beneficial microorganisms as photosynthetic bacteria, digestive bacteria and Yulei bacteria to carry out water purification experiment for soft-shelled turtle cultivation in greenhouse with sand. The result shows that the combined use of high-efficiency beneficial microorganisms may produce obvious effect in degrading organic substances and ammonia nitrogen in water; the contents of COD and ammonia nitrogen are close to those in the control pond in the condition of no change of water in a long time; especially the removal rate of nitrous nitrogen is up to about 50%. In the condition of enclosed circulation aquiculture and aquatic vegetable planting system, vegetable planting in water has obvious effect for purifying fish-farming wastewater. The maximum removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, nitrous nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, phosphate and COD are respectively 57.46%, 51.72%, 3.7%, 10.67%, 9.72% and 21.78%; and the average N/P of the input water and the output water for vegetable planting in water are respectively 6.60:1 and 6.53:1 (Tan, 2001).

The method of adopting internal iron scurf electrolysis to treat industrial wastewater has drawn extensive attentions because it has the benefits of using waste to control waste, good effect, small investment, high applicability and low operating cost. Lu et al. (2001) have used this method for carrying out laboratory and field tests to the wastewater of Zhejiang Jinyong Acrylic Fibers Co., Ltd. The result shows that internal iron scurf electrolysis technology not only has some effect for purifying the company's wastewater but also can improve the biochemical activity of the wastewater, thereby greatly increasing the degree of wastewater treatment; and the CODCr removal rate is 30.4%. Zhao et al. (2001) have used up-flowing anaerobic sludge bed reactor to treat domestic sewage from rural residential communities. The result of test indicates that the reactor has good purification effect and cab run stably. When the indexes of water quality are measured after the equipment runs for 50 days, the removal rates of CODCr and BOD5 can respectively reach about 70% and 60%.

The pollution of source water is quite serious in recent years. The contents of organic substances and ammonia nitrogen in source water are high and the traditional water purification technology cannot remove such pollutants. Biological contact oxidization treatment (BCOT) is an efficient source water pretreatment technology. Chen et al. (2001) have carried out pilot test to a certain water source in the south with this technology. The result indicates that sewage treatment pond will have a water membrane and can be smoothly started after 34 weeks of biological pretreatment; the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen is more than 75%; and the removal rate of CODMn is more than 20%. As for the treatment and removal of organic halide in drinking water, Ouyang et al. (2000) have concluded that biological anaerobic degradation is one of the effective methods for removing organic halide; ClO2 can replace liquid chlorine to inhibit the generation of harmful CHCl3, but the cost of water is high.

5.3  WATER QUALITY AND SAFETY

The quality of water environment is closely related to the people's life and water produces influences on human beings directly or indirectly through plants and animals. Many accidents arising out of water environment pollution have happened every year and consequently led to huge economic losses. The water environment in rural areas is worsening with every passing day and the water hygiene conditions in such areas are very poor. The overall situation of water environment in Hubei is worsening. The number of rivers with moderate pollution is 32 in the whole province. The river pollution belongs to organic and 3-nitrogen salt pollution. The main pollutants include ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenol, biochemical oxygen consumption and nitrite nitrogen (Li. 2000). Irritation with untreated sewage has intensified soil and ground water pollution and accidents caused by irrigation with sewage have happened from time to time (Li, 2001). The investigation made by Liu et al. (2001) about the chromium contents in irrigation water and wheat in Xinxiang city, Henan Province indicates that the chromium contents in all water samples exceed the limits specified in the state's Standard of the Water Quality for Agricultural Irrigation by 1.6-8.3 times; and the chromium contents in soil and crops and the chromium content in irrigation water have significant correlation.

The major problems with drinking water in China's rural areas are caused by decentralized water supply and reflected in the aspects of seriously excessive microorganisms, poor states for sense organs (mainly including color, turbidity and excessive iron and manganese contents) and serious organic pollution. The microbial pollution of drinking water is still a very serious problem in rural areas at present. It's a long-term task for the public health and anti-epidemic workers to strengthen the sterilization and hygiene management of drinking water in rural areas and prevent the prevalence of hydrophilous epidemic diseases. Many places in the south use water from lakes and reservoirs as domestic drinking water, but most of these lakes and reservoirs are in a state of eutrophication. Therefore, studies on algal toxicants and antiphytes are an important link for improving the quality of municipal water supply. Furthermore, the halogenated hydrocarbon compounds resulted from the sterilization of city water with chlorine have become a new pollution source (Zhang, 2002).

Most of the water quality indexes of the drinking water sources in Guizhou Province are good and the major problem is the seriously excessive content of bacteria caused by pollution. There is domestic pollution or industrial pollution around more than 70% of the water sources and hygiene protection facilities are very poor; the safety level of drinking water in the whole province is not high and 44% of the people are still drinking unclean and unsafe water; the water supply facilities in most areas are simple and short of complete technological processes; and the quality of most of the water supplied to consumers cannot reach the national standard on the sanitation of drinking water (Zeng, 2000).

The pollution of domestic drinking water sources in cities is even more serious. According to Lanzhou City Water Company's investigation of the water quality of its ground water source (the Yellow River) and the upper stream, because of the discharge of domestic sewage near the water source, bacillus coli colony is the principal pollutant in all stream segments (Yang, 2002). The pollution of drinking water leads to the appearance of large amounts of algae. Some algae can produce algal toxicant, which is very harmful to human health. It's discovered in research that mycrocystin toxicant in Dianshan Lake, Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake is probably a non-genetic toxic carcinogen or supplementary carcinogen and its pollution of water is possibly one of the important factors of drinking water-incurred cancer; and the traditional drinking water sterilization method can not entirely eliminate algal toxicants in water (Ding, 2001). Lu et al. (1999) have made biological degrading test to mycrocystin toxicant with sequence-batch biological membrane reactor. The result indicates that aerobic biological treatment is more effective than anaerobic biological treatment for degrading algal toxicants.

There are also reports about ground water pollution. An investigation of the ground water in the urban areas of Pingyin County, Shandong Province indicates that the total hardness of the local ground water is 38.1% higher than the limit; the hygienic indexes of some water wells are above the limits; especially the measured index of nitrogen-containing organic substances in the wells near nitrogen fertilizer plants are obviously higher than that in the wells located in other places (Yin, 2001).

The Public Health and Epidemic Station of Sichuan Province once made an investigation of the hygienic indexes of 362 water samples from self-supplied wells and mineral water and pure water produced by various enterprises in all parts of the province in 1997-2000. According to the result of investigation, the total pass rate was 78.2%; the pass rate of water from self-supplied wells was 73.9%; the pass rate of mineral water was 81.2%; the pass rate of pure drinking water was 86.0%; and the pass rates showed a trend of rising year by year in 1997 to 2000 (Wang, 2002). The major problems with the quality of Shanghai's drinking water are substandard chrominance, manganese content, aluminum content and some other indexes as compared with the water quality standards of EU, the US, Japan and the World Health Organization (Chen, 2000).

The result of studies made by Wang et al. (1999) on the organic pollution and mutagenesis of drinking water in the areas with high and low incidences of gastric cancer in Fujian Province indicates that the contents of COD and MCN are consistent with the rate of mortality for gastric cancer, so drinking water pollution is probably one of the factors leading to the high incidence of gastric cancer. Wu (2000) has summarized the relationship between drinking water and human health, holding boiled water is the best choice from the angle of economy, practicality and health.

With the appearance of more and more high-rise buildings, the quality of urban secondary water supply has also become a concern of urban residents. The pass rates of the quality of secondary water supply in Changsha were only 80%90% in 19951997. The quality of urban secondary water supply is closely related to the administration units' hygiene management system and the relevant persons' sense of hygiene. Sichuan Province has adopted a secondary water supply hygiene license system in the Domestic Drinking Water Hygiene Supervision and Management Measures of Sichuan to facilitate the hygienic control of secondary water supply (Zhang, 2001).

Che et al. (2002) have studied the water quality of storm runoff in the urban area of Beijing and the main influencing factors. The result indicates that the water quality of urban storm runoff is very poor and the pollution of initial runoff is even more serious than that of urban sewage; besides air quality, the most important influencing factors include roof materials, type of road, the situation of road surface pollution, air temperature, rainfall intensity, volume of rainfall and rainfall frequency. Lan et al. (2002) have made a summary of the studies on the water quality of the domestic rainwater collection projects. They point out that the water quality of China's rainwater collection projects allows no optimism; especially many indexes such as ammonia nitrogen, microorganism and COD in water cellars in north China are above the limits; and the water of some newly built rainwater collection projects is alkaline.

Chen (2000) has summed up the studies on the change of the quality of China's ground water and made a statistics of the hydrochemical data about the water systems of the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, Songhua River and Zhujiang River that were measured from the end of the 1950s to the middle 1980s. In respect of the main ionic components of natural water, each water system has shown a unique trend of change in water quality: the water in the Yangtze River has shown a trend of acidification; the water in the Yellow River has shown a trend of thickening; the river in Songhua River has shown a trend of alkalization; and the water in Zhujiang River has shown a trend of desalination. The water in lakes in arid areas (e.g. Wuliangsu Lake in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) has shown a trend of becoming saltier. Ground water has shown a trend of increasingly high nitrate content; the salt content of ground water in the northwestern arid areas is rising continuously; and the hardness of urban ground water in North China is also increasing ceaselessly.

5.4  WATER QUALITY STANDARD AND WATER QUALITY MONITORING METHOD

Water environment standard system is a complete management system for comprehensively planning the work of water environment standardization, coordinating the mutual relations and clarifying the functions and applicable scopes of the relevant standards. China's water environment standard system can be summed up in “five categories and three levels”. The five categories include the standard of water environment quality, the standard of water pollutant discharge, the basic standard of water environment, the standard of water monitoring and analysis method and the standard of standard water environment samples; and the three levels including national level, industrial level and local level. However, the hygienic standard of water environment also contains a lot of information about water quality. By the end of September 2001, the State Environmental Protection Administration totally promulgated 370 national standards concerning water environment (exclusive of the hygienic standard of water environment), which account for 65.3% of the total national standards on environmental protection (Zhou, 2001; Li, 2002).

China's water quality standard has been continuously improved since 1999. In 1999, the State Environmental Protection Administration approved the Standard of Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (GHZB 11999), which was implemented as of Jan. 1, 2001. Because of the improperness of some selected indexes and values of indexes and for more effective coordination of interdepartmental relationship, in 2002, the State Environmental Protection Administration promulgated the amended Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002), which has being implemented since June 1, 2002. The New Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water has being implemented since Sept. 1, 2001 (Li, 2002; Song, 2001). The new standard has specified totally 96 test items, including 34 routine test items and 62 non-routine test items. One thing worth attention is that the index of oxygen consumption is added in the routine test items (Yuan and Wang, 2002).

The Standard of Water Quality for Industrial Boilers (GB 1576-2001) was promulgated in 2001. The water quality-related standards promulgated by the other industries and departments include: Standard of Water Quality for Miscellaneous Domestic Water Consumptions (CJ/T 48-1999), Quality Standard for Reclaimed Wastewater Reused as Scenic Water (CJ/T 95-2000), Water Quality Standard for Fine Drinking Water (CJ 94-1999), Standard of Water Quality for Domestic Drinking Water Sources (CJ 3020-1999), Discharge Standard for Municipal Wastewater (CJ 3082-1999), Foods without Public Nuisance—Quality of Drinking Water for Domestic Animals and Fowls (NY 5027-2001), Foods without Public Nuisance—Quality of Water for Livestock Product Processing (NY 5028-2001) and Standard of Water Quality for Petrochemical Water Supply and Drainage (SH 3099-2000) (Li, 2002; Wang, 2000).

The standards on water quality monitoring methods mainly include two categories, i.e. the standards of water sampling, sample keeping and management technology and the standards of experiment analysis and determination method. By the end of Sep. 2001, the State Environmental Protection Administration totally promulgated 134 national standards about water quality monitoring methods, which accounted for 58.5% of the total national standards on environmental protection. In the promulgated standards, there are 6 standards about water sampling (including the design of sampling, technical guidance, sample keeping, sampling of water in lakes and reservoirs, the general principles for rainfall sampling and the collection and keeping of samples), 3 standards about the determination of the physical properties of water (temperature, color and turbidity), 2 standards about industrial wastewater test method (test of total nitro-compounds), 4 standards about aquatic organisms and their toxicity (determination of microorganisms, determination of acute toxicity, determination of various substances' acute toxicity to algae and determination of various substances' acute toxicity to freshwater fish), 11 standards about rainfall test method, 13 standards about the method for determining radioactive substances in water (mainly including strontium, uranium, radium-226, thorium, kalium-40, plutonium, polonium and iodine-131); 25 standards about organic pollutant determination method and 70 standards about the determination of inorganic pollutants in water. However, all these standards were promulgated before 1998.

In the industrial standards promulgated by the State Environmental Protection Administration, there are 14 standards about water quality analysis and determination methods, all of which have been promulgated in recent years. These standards specify the methods for determining boron, trichloro-aldehyde, total salt, beryllium, sulfide, chemical oxygen demand of perchloric wastewater, total organic carbon, repeftal, dibutyl phthalate, vinyl cyanide, chlorobenzene, polychlorinated benzodioxole, polychlorinated benzofuran, absorbable organic halogen (AOX), inorganic negative ion and etc. The sector of water resources has also promulgated some standards in respect of water quality, mainly including technical regulations on the collection and pretreatment of the samples of water environments of fully-loaded streams and the determination of total mercury, total selenium and trace nitrobenzene compounds (Li, 2002).

5.5  WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT

Because of water deficiency, many cities and areas have made water resources planning in recent years. Water quality (water environment) is an important part of the planning. Li (2000) has studied the content of the overall water environment plan of Taiyuan and the planning method and compared the differences between the domestic plans and the current international plans. Tian et al. (2001) have studied the optimization of the overall planning of city water and intermediate water system as well as water supply by quality grades, proposed to include intermediate water system into urban water supply system for centralized planning, put forth a set of methods for optimizing the overall planning of city water and intermediate water systems, established a model of the expense of water supply system, which has produced a satisfactory result after simulation calculation.

The water bodies with different environmental functions in the areas crisscrossed by waterways have different requirements on water quality. Han and Zhu (2001) have studied the pollution source control method indicated in the water environment plans of the areas crisscrossed by waterways. They have pointed out that the allowed volume of discharge for each pollution source should be decided in accordance with the requirements on water quality during water environment planning; from the angle of counter-question, they have formulated pollution source control counter-questions with restrictive conditions and found the method of pollution source control in the condition of satisfying the restrictive conditions of water quality.

Many articles have published in respect of water environment quality appraisal, but few substantial breakthroughs have been made. According to the result of water quality monitoring at 12 monitoring sections on 10 main urban river segments in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Liu and Qu (2002) have used comprehensive index method (P value method) to comprehensively appraise the overall water environment quality of the urban segments of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The result indicates that the water in the reservoir area is basically in a state of slight pollution; a small number of water areas are in state of moderate pollution; and few areas are in a state of serious pollution. The main polluted areas include the main urban area of Chongqing, Changshou, Fuling and Wanzhou; the main pollutants include bacillus coli colony, TP, nonionic ammonia and petroleum-type pollutants. Chen et al. (2001) have also appraised and analyzed the water quality in the two sections of Fuling and Cuntan, Chongqing by using gray interaction appraisal method and multi-target decision appraisal method. It's proved through research that the result of appraisal can accurately reflect the situation of water pollution and the result is more complete and straightforward as compared with single-factor appraisal method.

Adopting the concept of entropy in thermodynamics, Wang and He (2001) have used the entropy substitution method in the fuzziness calculation of fuzzy mathematics (i.e. entropy appraisal method) to appraise the water quality data collected by Luanxian Station in the lower reaches of Luanhe River in Hebei Province in 1998. The result indicates that the entropy appraisal method not only inherits some benefits of the comprehensive pollution index method (easy for quantification) and avoids the one-sidedness caused by one-vote veto in the single-factor appraisal method but also has a stronger capability in differentiating water quality. Han (2002) has compared and analyzed the changes of the quality of water bodies in Kaifeng, Henan in 1984 and 1997 in fuzzy comprehensive appraisal method. The result indicates that the quality of water in the main rivers and lakes and the quality of ground water in Kaifeng have not been improved and, on the contrary, shown a trend of worsening.

Through analyzing the data about the quality of ground water in the watershed of Dongliao River in 1983-1999 and reorganizing the hydrological, social and economic data in successive years, Yan (2001) and some other persons have established a model of the key point of watershed ground water pollution and studied the characteristics of the space evolution of the quality of ground water in the watershed of Dongliao River. The result indicates that the key point of ground water pollution in the watershed of Dongliao River has shown a trend of moving towards the upper stream. Yu et al. (2001) have used factor analysis method to analyze the factors influencing the water quality of Songhua River. The result of analysis indicates that the main pollutants in Songhua River are nitrogen-originated pollutants from non-point sources and the water quality varies with the change of hydrologic period.

Besides monitored index appraisal method, water quality appraisal methods also include biological water quality appraisal method, which covers biological method, biological index method and diversified index method (Chen et al., 2001). Wang and Wang (2001) have summarized the development of studies on large benthic invertebrate-aided high-speed appraisal method and briefly introduced the development of studies in the aspects of sampling method, appraisal parameters and parameter series for large invertebrate-aided high-speed appraisal technology. Jiang (2000) has made comments on seven biological indexes related to biological pollution resistance, six of which are related to zoobenthos.

5.6  WATER QUALITY SIMULATION AND CALCULATION

The establishment of water quality simulation model and calculation is indispensable for water quality planning and appraisal. The field of water quality simulation and calculation is very active. Jin et al. (2001) have put forward a new model—projection tracing model for checking the reasonableness of water quality appraisal standard, solving the problem of incompatibility between the results of single water quality index appraisal and increasing the resolution ratio of water quality appraisal model. The result of appraisal is real number value. The result of calculation indicates that this plan is effective and universal and applicable to various comprehensive environmental quality appraisals.

Yang and Li (2002) have appraised the current situation of water quality at the mouth of the Yangtze River by establishing a model of artificial nerve network. They think that this method can make the result of appraisal more accurate. However, the selection of the number of nodes in the intermediate layer is a very complicated problem that needs further research. Wan and Wu (2000) have analyzed and studied the river environment carrying capacity induction and distribution method and put forward a modified calculation method. Practices of calculation indicate that this method is reasonable and trustworthy.

Liu and Wang (2001) have used Kelige method in statistics to probe into the principle and method for the space optimization and appraisal of the parameters of lake water quality. They think this method can make full use of the information not covered in the classic statistics for making unbiased and optimized appraisal of the parameters of water quality in any point of a lake. In comparison with the traditional method, Kelige method can be used for making more accurate appraisal of the space distribution values of lake water quality parameters.

Yang et al. (2002) have studied the model system of urban industrial water pollution control simulation system. Taking the decision model as the core, they have integrated water pollution discharge model, water environment quality model and water pollution loss model together to form the model system of urban industrial water pollution control simulation system.

In view of the difficulties in water environment quality grading, Sun et al. (2002) have put forward an adaptive resonance theory (ART)-based water environment quality grading model, which has achieved excellent effects in practical use. The model has such benefits as strong objectiveness, high flexibility and easy operation. Xu (2000) has used remote sensing and GIS technology to analyze the relationship between the water quality of Jilong River in Taiwan, China and the environmental background and urban pollution and concluded that the content of suspended solids in Jilong River is mainly influenced by environmental background and urban pollution discharge.

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[7]     Che Wu, Ou Lan, Wang Huizhen et al. (2002), The quality and major influential factors of runoff in Beijing urban area, Technique and Equipment for Environmental Pollution Control, 3(1): 33-37 (in Chinese).
[8]     Han Jinshan, Guan Hua, Ma Jianhua (2002), Analysis of Variation of water quality in Kaifeng City, J. of Henan Univ.(Natural Sci.), 32(2): 74-79 (in Chinese).
[9]     Han Longxi, Zhu Dangsheng (2001), The pollutant source control method for network water environment management, J. of Hydraulic Engineering, (10): 28-31 (in Chinese).
[10]  He Yi, Hu Yonghong, Chai Benzhong et al. (2001), Progress of membrane bioreactor combined technology for wastewater treatment, Industrial Water Treatment, 21(7): 4-7 (in Chinese).
[11]  Jiang Jianguo, Shen Wenfen (2000), Biological index of evaluating water pollution, Yunnan Environmental Science, (sup.): 251-253 (in Chinese).
[12]  Jin Juliang, Wei Yiming, Ding Jing (2001), Projection pursuit model for comprehensive evaluation of water quality, Acta Scientiae Circumsatntiae, 21(4): 431-434 (in Chinese).
[13]  Lan Junkang, Lan Yanhong (2002), Progress of water quality of rainwater engineering, China Water Supply and Drainage, (8): 1-8 (in Chinese).
[14]  Li Dongsheng (2002), Discussion of of drinking water quality standard, China Supply Water and Health, 10(2): 1-2 (in Chinese).
[15]  Li Guibao, Du Xia, Zou Xiaowen (2002), Statue of water environment quality standard in China, China Standardization, (8): 57-58 (in Chinese).
[16]  Li Guibao, Du Xia (2001), Utilizing sewage as resources and countermeasures of its utilization in agriculture, China Rural Water and Hydropower, (11): 9-12 (in Chinese).
[17]  Li Guibao, Zhou Huaidong (2002), Development of water environment standardization in industries of water conservancy of China, China Standards Review, (4): 23-25 (in Chinese).
[18]  Li Guibao, Zhou Huaidong (2002), Statue of water environment standardization in China, China Standardization, (7): 56-57  (in Chinese).
[19]  Li Wenti, Gao Yunfeng, Liu Timing (2000), Statue of water environment in Hebei, Water Resources Protection, (3): 26-28 (in Chinese).
[20]  Li Xiaojuan (2000), Programming of city water environment, Water Supply and Drainage, 26(5): 4-7 (in Chinese).
[21]  Liu Huijuan, Qu Jiuhui (2002), Water quality evaluation of the Three Gorges reservoir area, Environment Science, 23(1): 74-77 (in Chinese).
[22]  Liu Ruimin, Wang Xuejun (2001), The theory and method of the spatimal estimation on the water quality parameters of lake, China Environmental Science, 21(2): 177-179 (in Chinese).
[23]  Liu Xiaotang, Wang Xia, Gui Lihui et al (2001), Survey of Cr of wheat and water for irrigation in Xinxiang city, China Public Health, 17(3): 243-244 (in Chinese).
[24]  Lu Bin, Wei Heping (2001), Study on enhanced treatment nitrition chemical industry wastewater by internal electrolysis process, J. of Tongji Univ., 29(11): 1294-1298 (in Chinese).
[25]  Lu Xinwu. Study of biological degrading test to mycrocystin toxicant. China Public Health, 1999, (2): 138-141 (in Chinese).
[26]  Luo Wensheng, Wang Ping (2000), Experimental research on effects of magnetic treatment used in purifying organic wastewater, J. Wuhan Univ. of Hydr. And Elec. Eng., 33(50): 1-4 (in Chinese).
[27]  Meng Chenxiang, Tang Yuxia, Jia Shulong (2001), Purification of aquatic plants to city sewage water, J. of Agri. Unvi. of Hebei, 24(sup.): 90-92 (in Chinese).
[28]  Ministry of Land and Resources (2000), Situations of Ground Water in the Major Cities and Area of China in 2000 (in Chinese).
[29]  Ouyang Xingmei, Kang Ruhong (2000), Study development of pollution and treatment of organohalides in drinking water, J. of Hebei Normal Univ. (Natural Science), 24(1): 98-101 (in Chinese).
[30]  Ren Ao, Shi Jialiang (2001), Application of microbial technology to the improvment of water quality in Aquiculture – Turtle cultivation, Rural Eco-Environment, 17(1): 48-51 (in Chinese).
[31]  Song Renyuan (2001), Goal of improving water quality, City and Town Water Supply, (1): 19-22 (in Chinese).
[32]  State Environmental Protection Administration of China (2001), China Environmental Bulletins (1998-2001) (in Chinese).
[33]  Sun Chunpeng, Lei Junrong, Zhao Huiqiang (2002), Water environment quality grading model based an adaptive resonance theory (ART), Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, 33(6): 42-44 (in Chinese).
[34]  Tang Hongxin, Luo Guozhi, Zhu Xuebao et al (2001), Effect of hydroponic vegetables on water quality purification of aquaculture waste water, J. of Shanghai Fisheries Univ., 10(4): 293-297 (in Chinese).
[35]  Tian Yimei, Zhao Xinhua, Zhang Yajun 2001),Study of optimization of the overall planning of city tap water and intermediate water systemWater Supply and Drainage, 27(5): 23-26 (in Chinese).
[36]  Ting Zhen, Chen Xiaodong, Lin Ping 2001),Progress of effect of toxicants on health and pollution controlChina Public Health, 17(12): 1149-1151 (in Chinese).
[37]  Wan Biao, Wu Yiming 2000),Study on calculation and distribution method of river environmental capacityJ. Wuhan Univ. of Hydr. and Elec. Eng., 33(1): 74-76 (in Chinese).
[38]  Wang Beixin, Yang Lianfen 2001),Advances in rapid bio-assessment of water quality using benthic macroinvertebratesJ. of Nanjing Agri. Univ., 24(4): 107-111 (in Chinese).
[39]  Wang Jing, Zhang Yushan 2001),Present state of the application of the ultrafiltration membrane and microfiltration membrane to wastewater treatment and its development trendIndustrial Water Treatment, 7(3): 4-7 (in Chinese).
[40]  Wang Jinhua, Xu Jianqiang 2002),Bacteria survey of drinking water in Sichuan province from 1997 to 2000J. Prev. Med. Inf., 18(1): 64-65 (in Chinese).
[41]  Wang Xiaodong, Yang Qiuhua, Liu Yu 2001),Development of the researches on organic effluent treatment by SCWCIndustrial Water Treatment, 21(7): 1-3 (in Chinese).
[42]  Wang Yuping, He Mafeng 2001),Method of water quality evaluation by entropyHebei Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, (1): 36-38 (in Chinese).
[43]  Wang Zhansheng 2000),Water supply by quality grade and water quality standard for fine drinking WaterWater Supply and Drainage, 26(6): 74-75 (in Chinese).
[44]  Wang Zhihong, Wang Zhiqiang, Chen Hua 1999),A study on organic contamination and mutagenicity of drinking water in the area with high and low incidence of gastric cancerJ. Prev. Med. Inf., 15(2): 65-66 (in Chinese).
[45]  Wu Maojiang 2002),Drinking water and body health. J. of Hebei Normal Univ. (Natural Science), 26(3): 314-318 (in Chinese).
[46]  Xu Jun 2000),Application of remote sensing and GIS technology to analyze the river water quality environmental backgroundEnvironmental Science, 21(4.): 1-5 (in Chinese).
[47]  Yan Denghua, He Yan, Wangchunmei 2001),The evolution of spatial pattern of surfaces water quality in the East Liaohe BasinChina Environmental Science, 21(6): 564-568 (in Chinese).
[48]  Yang Hong, Li Yuesong 2002),Comprehensive assessment of water quality of Changjiang Estuary based on artifical neural networksJ. of Shanghai Fisheries Univ., 11(1):31-36 (in Chinese).
[49]  Yang Xioulin 2002),Survey of drinking water of Lanzhou city in 2001China Supply Water and Health, 10(1): 3-6 (in Chinese).
[50]  Yang Zhifeng, Cheng Hongguang 2002),Models in simulation system of urban industrial water pollution controlActa Science Circumsatntiae, 22(2): 213-218 (in Chinese).
[51]  Yin Lu 2001),Analysis of ground water quality in Pingyin county of Shandong province China Supply Water and Health, 9(2): 26-28 (in Chinese).
[52]  Yu Shuxia, Shang Jincheng, Zhao Jingsong 2001),Factor analysis and dynamics of water quality of Songhua RiverSoil and Environmental Sci., 10(4): 277-281 (in Chinese).
[53]  Yuan Zhibin, Wang Zhanshen 2002),Index of CODCr and recension of drinking water quality standardChina Supply Water and Health, 10(2): 2-4 (in Chinese).
[54]  Zhabg Rong, Zhao Dayu, Huang Xinsheng2001),Statue and development trend of supply water sanitation on city and townJ. Prev. Med. Inf., 17(5): 346-347 (in Chinese).
[55]  Zhang Rong, Zhao Dayu 2002),Statue of drinking water in ChinaChina Supply Water and Health, 10(1): 1-3 (in Chinese).
[56]  Zhao Jianfu, Jiang Zhuwu 2001), Study on treatment of domestic wastewater using upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactorJ. of Tongji Univ., 28(6): 748-751 (in Chinese).

Zhou Huaidong, Li Guibao, Zou Xiaowen 2001),Impact on the water environment standardization due to China's WTO entry and the countermeasures proposedTechnical Supervision in Water Resources, (6): 14-18 (in Chinese).


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